The Economic Development of India

???The Economic Development of India:Real or Deceptive???
-A Seminar on the changing face of the Indian Economy.
Trivandrum International School organised a seminar on ???The Economic Development of India:Real or Deceptive ??™on 27th Nov. 2010. Dr. M A Oommen, Chairman, 4th Finance Commission, kerala inaugurated the seminar and interacted with the students. Apart from the Trivandrum International School, students from St.Thomas Residential School, St.Thomas Central School, Kendriya Vidyalaya Pattom and Loyola School participated in the seminar. The seminar was organised by the Department of Business Studies, Trivandrum International School for the students of classes 11 and 12. Mr. G.Vijayaraghavan, Honourary Director, Trivandrum international School and Mr. John Mundakkayam, the Beuro Chief, Malayala Manorama, Trivandrum also interacted with the students.
During the seminar, students emphasised the need of decentralisation of economic and political power to make the benefits of the ongoing New Economic Policy available for the common man of India.
Dr. Oommen reminded that economics is a science of choice. It is for everybody??™s needs, not for somebody??™s greed. To a question raised by a student on the inportance of the Five Year Plans in the economic growth of India, he said, the success of Five Year Plans is not only depended on the goals and strategies laid down by the plan, but the political will and a corruption -free civil and political set up also is equally important.
Mr. G.Vijayaraghavan pointed on the contradiction of the percentage of Indian population in agriculture and their contribution to the GDP. The developed countries are capable of producing the agricultural produce for their consumption and also for their exports using 3 or 4 percent of their population.
Majority of the students participated in the seminar shared their concern on the thretening level of corruption in India and they were unanimous in stating that it is one of the main obstacles for the Indian economic development.Gokul Ashok Thampi, Tanya Maria, Suraj V Ayyappan, Nikita, Akshya Prakash, Jose Alex and Panchimma Cherian from Trivandrum International School presentes papers on various sub topics.

Pgce. Managing the Learning Process

???Young people today think of nothing but themselves. They have no reverence for parents or old age??™. Peter the Hermit.(1274.)[cited in Watkins 2008]

Every Child Matters (ECM; HM government 2003) identified the need to look after the well being of children up to 19 years of age. There are five key outcomes including Being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and economic well being. The green paper Youth Matters (2005) was a development of ECM aiming for post-compulsory providers to raise young people??™s aspirations and help them to achieve and feel positive towards learning.
Every student deserves the best education possible. Some students are highly motivated, ready to contribute to lessons and willing to apply themselves but often the desire to learn may need inspiring and a lack of self discipline may be evident. Cowley (2001) feels that some students (especially in Further Education when they may lack structure in their home lives) need boundaries and structure to give them a feeling of solidarity and may feel the need to test adults to see how far these boundaries can be stretched.
New and student teachers can easily be discouraged when students are unwilling to participate and decide to disrupt lessons. Engaging all students is vital to keep the classroom as a teaching environment and not a disciplinary one.
Jaques and Salmon (2007) (cited in Avis, 2010) suggested that many incidents are due to lack of structure in sessions. A transition between activities allows learners to pursue their own agenda. Challenging behaviour can indicate boredom and it can also be a signal that learners are not placed on the right course or the level of learning is not appropriate. Consequently their behaviour amuses others and encourages ???herd??™ behaviour.
After being given a class of 16/17 year olds to teach for a 2 hour session with only 10 minutes notice and instruction to ???help them with their case studies??™ laptop computers were provided for each student and clear instructions of NO phones out on the desk and NO Face book or shopping sites on the computers. A few were compliant and motivated because they required a ???distinction??™ grade for this particular piece of work and worked diligently asking pertinent questions. A few others decided to test the boundaries of the new teacher by looking at photographs on their phones, gossiping, looking at shopping websites on the laptops, one particular student decided to use her mobile phone to ring a salon and rent a sun bed. At the time fears of reprisal stopped any dialog between students and teacher but on reflection the students should have been told immediately to put their phones away and if there had been reprisals been told to leave the classroom and await instruction outside the door then been issued with a cause for concern and their course tutor informed.
Weigle (1995) (Cited in Eves. 2001) found that when student teachers were faced with disruptive behaviour they couldn??™t identify which interventions would be effective and which would just exacerbate behaviour. In 1997 Weigle went on to say that controlling disruptive behaviour in the classroom was (and still is) one of teachers greatest challenges. This is also supported by Merrett and Wheldall, (1993), and Smylie, (1989).
Many students come to college with a great deal of emotional baggage. Some are neglected at home, some are being sexually abused, a few have been forced to leave their homes and live with relatives, many are even single parents at 16 yrs old. As teachers, we desire the students to be willing to learn, but realistically some of them just don??™t want to or know how to learn and acting out is their escape. De Spirt (2007)
Maslow??™s hierarchy of needs (1943) [cited in Petty 2004] looked at the persons willingness to accept and participate in their environment and this relies on the persons own self concept and related levels of motivation or self actualisation. Maslow believed that self actualisation was a human need that could only be met when other levels of attainment had been met.
Motivation (or lack of it) can arise from many sources and situations. Involving the students in their own learning should make them feel more comfortable and more likely to succeed. Very few students wish to remain anonymous and most students like to make others aware of their interests, experiences and needs and also wish to know about their peers. This can promote a feeling of safety within the group dynamics and given that a group has more potential for achievement than an individual it is important that any achievements are monitored. Individuals should not become so overwhelmed by more dominant members that they are unable to express themselves and so relinquish their decision making power consequently forgoing individual rights and responsibilities. Fawbert (2008)
Weinman (2008) noted that there are clear potential downsides to group work including student resentment due to diminished role creating on -going resentment for the less assertive student. Also more time is needed for organizing the groups, and dealing with intra?group problems.

Extrinsic factors such as Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) can motivate students to attend college that otherwise could not afford to be there but it doesn??™t motivate some of them to learn, consequently this can lead to disruptive behaviour. When reward controls behaviour, they attribute their actions to factors outside of themselves (e.g., the reward) and they lose a sense of self-determination. Once the reward contingency is no longer in effect, there is nothing compelling them to work at the activity so their interest declines. Paul R. Pintrich (2010) , The argument is that people should do something because they enjoy it, and that rewards only sabotage natural desire. Watkins (2008) felt that if a student focuses more on the punishment or reward then only compliance rather than learning is achieved.
Reiss (2004) disagrees.
???There is no reason that money or that grades cant motivate college students??? he said. ???Its all a matter of individual differences. Different people are motivated in different ways.???
It essential that students know when they have done well and what is good about it. Petty (2004) feels that it is impossible to learn if no one ever tells you when you have done well. Students need an informative view on what and why they have done well, it is better for them to discover that they have succeeded with one of their goals than simply gaining the teachers approval. Information needs to be constructive about what needs improving and how to improve it, not just about what is wrong.
Eric Berne??™s transactional theories play a large part in F.E. The students whilst being classed as ???adults??™ (i.e. they are no longer in compulsory education) are still young and often act in a child like manner. This in turn encourages the teacher to adopt the parent role which produces a child like response which perpetuates the parent ego state. Reece and walker (2009) talk about ???stroking??™ ??“ in babies and children it is physical touching, but in adults it can be metaphorical i.e. a positive stroke would be ???that is a really good essay??? a negative stroke would be ??? your hopeless!??? Berne suggests if we do not receive positive strokes we will seek negative ones, as any attention is better than no attention. Disruptive students may have been conditioned to seek negative strokes within their personal lives however Reece and walker (2009) go on to say that if positive strokes are given for good performance then the student may start to modify their behaviour to gain positive affirmation.
During a team building day where students competed in ???it??™s a knockout??™ type event, house points were awarded to the winner of each event. A few students stated categorically that they were NOT competing in any childish competitions. Yet the loudest protester went on to gain eleven house points in total and has won the overall house certificate for most house points gained this month and she happy and thriving in the class room this week.
In 1964 Victor Vroom defined motivation as a process allowing choices to be made by the individual. These choices are based on how well the actual results may match up to the desired results. Motivation comes from the expectancy that a certain amount of effort will achieve a certain outcome and it is this expectancy that fires motivation.
Cowely (2004) says ,
???Expect the best, be surprised rather than angry if a student doesnt fulfil your expectations. If we only expect our students to be what they already are, then thats all well ever get???.
During a teaching observation the lesson seemed pretty ineffective due to the fact that nerves got the better of the teacher, amongst other things the aims were clear but the objectives were not reiterated and yet Petty (2004) feels there is nothing wrong with a minor disaster so long as you learn from it. Mistakes are not only inevitable, they are necessary as part of the learning process Petty also feels that if we don??™t experience the occasional failure then we are not experimenting enough ???one must go too far to discover how far one can go???
The feedback for this observation stated that the lesson was planned with plenty of detail, the learners were supported well during the series of planned activities and apparently a calm, encouraging and positive manner was presented. The main points that need revising are the lesson objectives ensuring that they fulfil the SMART acronym (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic & Time) Also more time must be taken over the introduction of tasks, the learners were eager to get started on them but they needed to be more conscious of what they were doing. Avis et al (2010) feel that to ensure a smooth transition between activities learners need to understand where they are in the session and where they are heading. Practical considerations such as collection and distribution of learning materials or equipment each activity should be concluded effectively and the next introduced properly.
Ofsted and the DfES widely promote learning style theories. Identifying appropriate learner needs is not easy but in broad terms the teacher needs to ask ???what do the learners need to know??™ and ???what should the learners be able to do as a result??™ Blooms taxonomy classifies learning outcomes depending on the types of learning which they represent using the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domain. Each domain starts off with the simplest form of learning and moves towards more complex and challenging types of learning. Petty (2004)
Kolb (1984) [cited in businessballs.com. accessed 2 Dec 2010]says that ideally his experiential learning theory model represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner touches all the bases, ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting. Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated into concepts with implications for action, which the person can actively test and experiment with, which in turn enable the creation of new experiences. Businessballs.com (2010)
The Visual Auditory & Kinesthetic learning styles model offer reasonably simple and accessible methods to understand and explain peoples preferred ways to learn. The authors of businessballs.com feel that occasionally people will write that the use of such models and tests can be problematical. They concur by saying that this is true of course of any tool if undue reliance is placed on the methodology or if the results of tests are treated as absolute and exclusive of other styles and considerations in the overall mix of a persons personality and needs.
Rowntree (1991) was one of the ???doubters??™. He felt
???That the problem with this type of structured standardized assessment task in pursuit of comparability, measurability and fairness to ???students in general??™ is that we may learn more about the similarities amongst students (and help create them) Than ways in which they differ???
Nomothetic assessment collects data to compare one student with another. Classing people as ???slow learners??™ or ???high flyers??™ and sort people into pre existing categories implying that there are plenty of people like them around. The nomothetic appeal is probably at its strongest when we do summative assessment to ensure that everyone is working to a similar standard. Ideographic assessment aims to find out about the individual and their uniqueness. In the long run this may be a better way of assessing a person thus selecting the people who are truly interested in their chosen field which may help cut high attrition rates in health and social care courses in the future.
The classroom environment is a place where students and teachers alike spend a lot of time, so it is important that the space is utilised to its maximum potential. A diadactic teacher will have people sitting still and listening to her presentation whilst a Kinesthetic teacher may have students moving around and learning material strewn everywhere. A tidy room commands more respect than working amid clutter.
Organisation and safety project a caring attitude towards the students and lay out is also very important. Cowely (2001) thinks that the way the teacher lays out the desks and chairs can have a strong impact on the way the students perceived the teachers style and can also have an effect on the way students behave. Desks in groups tends to indicate a more laid back approach, leaning towards group work allowing the teacher to move freely amongst the students. A disadvantage to this layout is that not all student??™s faces can be seen at the same time allowing for chatting or plotting. Also students may perceive the teacher as less traditional therefore less strict.
A ???horse shoe??™ layout around the edge of the room can work well as everyone can see the front of the classroom, and the teacher can have everyone in line of vision. The problem with this layout is that if the students are using laptops all the screens are facing away from the teacher leading to the temptation to go on Facebook or shopping sites, and whilst the teacher can walk behind the students, there can be a tendency for the students at the end of the rows to ???block??™ the way and bags left behind chairs are a hazard.
Whilst observing a qualified teacher at work it was worth noting than when handing out more than one piece of work to the class at a time, it was mentioned that one piece was to be assessed and the other was just for information so nearly every student disregarded the ???unimportant??™ ???information??™ piece and concentrated solely on the piece to be marked. It was noted that it may be wiser to not to advise them which piece was which till the end of the session to avoid confrontation about not doing both pieces.
Teachers need to organise their time, discuss, observe others, reflect, evaluate and diagnose their needs . Martin (1992) found in a study group of student teachers that more than half had set expectations of themselves that were too high.
Classroom events can never be predicted with accuracy. Disruptive effects occur for many reasons – nevertheless with good support and experience teachers should be able to attempt to predict pupil??™s responses to work and develop routines to engender predictability and reduce ambiguity.

The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee (2010) want induction to the teaching profession to be treated as a three to five year process, and newly qualified teachers seen much more explicitly as ???novice??™ teachers with much still to learn. Difficult pupil behaviour, government micro-management and bureaucracy, numerous curriculum changes, and exam league tables all put huge pressures on new teachers. Curtis (2009)
Classroom management and management of student conduct are skills that teachers acquire and hone over time. Skills such as effective classroom management are central to teaching and require “common sense,” consistency, a sense of fairness, and courage. These skills also require that teachers understand in more than one way the psychological and developmental levels of their students. The skills associated with effective classroom management are only acquired with practice, feedback, reflection and a willingness to learn from mistakes. Adprima (2010) [Accessed 1 dec 2010]
Unlike nursing where the student can practice injection technique on an orange or passing a naso-gastric tube on a dummy there is no practical way for student teachers to “practice” their nascent skills other than actually going into a classroom setting.

Reference list
Avis, J. Fisher, R. Thompson, R. (2010). Teaching in lifelong learning a guide to theory and practice. Mc Graw Hill
Curtis, P. (2009) Newly qualified teachers dropping out after six months. The guardian on line Friday 14 Aug

DfES, (2005). 14??“19 education and skills. White Paper. Department for Education and Skills
DeSpirt, D. (2007). How to Improve Student Behaviour The Student Behaviour Report How to Improve Student Behavior: The Student Behavior Report
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Eves, C. (2001)Assisting beginning teachers in managing inappropriate classroom behaviour through mentoring. Primary Educator, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p3, 13p, 2 Charts
Fawbert, G. Teaching in Post Compulsory Education. Skills standards & lifelong learning. London: continuum

House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee.(2009)Training of Teachers Fourth Report of Session??“10 Vol.1 http://www.publications.parliament.uk
Martin, J. (1992) Concerns of First Year Teachers in Australian Catholic Schools, South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 20(2)
Merrett, F.,& Wheldall, K. (1993). How do teachers learn to manage classroom behaviour A study of teachers opinions about their initial training with special reference to classroom behaviour management. Education Studies, 19,
Petty, G. (2004). Teaching today. Nelson Thornes.
Rowntree, D. (1988). Assessing students: how shall we know them London: Kogan Page.

Smylie, M.A. 1989 Teachers views of the effectiveness of sources of Learning to teach. The Elementary School Journal, 89.

Watkins. C, (2008) managing classroom behaviour . http://www.atl.org.uk/Images/Managing%20classroom%20behaviour%202008.pdf
Weigle, K. L. Positive Behaviour Support as a Model for Promoting Educational Inclusion. Journal of Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1997, Vol 22, No 1.
Weinman C. (2008) Student group work in educational settings. http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/files/Group_work_SEI_8-08.pdf. August 2008, updated July 2010, p. 1accessed 28 novenber 2010.

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Life is a journey

Essay:Life is a journey.::

The definition of life found in the dictionary is: the period between birth and death. As for Journey, it means an act of traveling from one place to another: Aren™t they similar in some aspects? I often hear people say life is a journey. I totally agree. From ones first cry to the last breathe, people come to the world and have various journeys. Some of them might be exciting and surprising, and others could be rather simple and natural¦ No matter where they go, they are unique in their own ways. 

A journey could be fascinating, so is life. I always have special enthusiasm towards mountains. Last year, I went to Japan with my friends and here we climbed the famous Fuji mountain. We started our trip before sunrise. When arriving at the peak laboriously, we were stunned to find such charming scenery. The sunshine made the mountain and surroundings so harmonious and fantastic. This is just like our life which has so many wonderful things attracting us and makes everyday colorful.  We pursue dreams throughout our life and aim to realize them by hard working and interests.  

A journey could be unexpected, so is life. The Fuji mountain is 3776 metres above sea level. As we climbed higher and higher, the varation of plants decresed and there were less beautiful scenery. The climbing route started to get narrower, steeper and rockier. Most of us got tired as we just arrived the third station, and there were five more stations to go. Then different complains began.  It must be very fun to spend the day exploring the Tokyo city! one of my friend said. Everybody was depressed and frustrated. At this moment we saw one old Japanese couple with grey hair and wrinkles on their faces pass by.They held hands closely and supported each other. We were so touched by this scene that soon we started climbing faster. With friends™ strength and courage, we finally maded to the eighth station by 8pm, just 200 metres away from the peak.  We all have our own ideas of what our life journey should be like. However, unexpectations and surprises would happen. Then we might get sick and feel frustrated, but we should never stop. Numerous people complete their own journey bravely. We get to know them and learn from them. We compliment and applaud them too. Gradually We grow and develop ourselves as unique individuals.  

A journey could be rewarding, so is life. When finally getting to the highest point of the Fuji mountain, we were so excited. Standing in the wind and sunlight , we all knew that we were different in some ways compared to yesterday. I has received so many things from this mountain climbing experience. I learn to be persistent, brave and optimistic towards things. I also understand my friends better and feel closer to them. Faced with difficulties, I know that I should be patient, calm and steady. Life is a journey. It is an excursion to the world and a baptism to the heart. Family, friendship, love, competitors and laughters are what we receive in this journey. Thus we must accept every gift whatever this journey gives us. This is because everything happens for a reason. Be brave to confront different aspects of life journey.

All in all, life is a magical journey full of fun. But it is also dangerous and full of troubles. We will meet people you are not familiar with, see and learn things we haven™t seen and known before. This life journey allows us to understand the value of our life and realize the value of ourselves, since each one is wonderful, special and significant. Be grateful of having this experience. Be ready for more challenges. Enjoy and never regret it. ?-Z?

The Ecological Threat

?23/12/2009
???? 3: ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????/????? ?????
???? ???? ??? ????? ?????, ????? ???, ??? ???????? ????. ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????,????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??. ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ,??? ????, ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??, ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????, ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ????????.
???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????, ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????, ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????. ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????. ???? ???, ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?”???? ?????”. ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???, ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????. ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ???????.
????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????. ????? ???? ??????? ??????, ????? ???? ?????, ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????. ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????-???? ???? ?????? ?”???? ?????” ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????, ?? ????? ???-???? ??? ?? ?????, ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?”? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????.
???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????, ????? ??????,?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????; ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????.?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????, ????? ????? ???.
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????-?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????. ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????, ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????, ?? ???? ???? ???. ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????, ????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????. ???????, ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???, ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????. ?????, ?????? ?? “????? ?????” ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????.
??? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ?????. ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????. ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?”? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???, ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????.

Pga-Personal Growth Assesssment

PERSONAL GROWTH ASSESSMENT

My career objectives are:
5 years: To have earned a bachelor??™s degree from the University of Texas at Austin, working towards my master??™s, and volunteering with the Texas Dept. of Family and Protective Services.
10 years: Have my Master of Science in social Work from University of Texas at Austin and working as a Research Administrator at The center for Social Work Research (CSWR) at UT.

My work setting would be:
Immediately upon Graduation: I would like a challenging work setting, preferably as research assistant in which I would participate in the design , execution, and analysis of social work research. I would manage data collections for projects as well. Volunteering and interning with the Texas Dept. of Family and Protective services.
Following my Master??™s degree (5 years later): I would like to be an Administering Researcher in which I would design projects and collect and analyze findings through the managing of my own team at The Center for Social Work Research.
Assessment of Managerial Strengths and Weaknesses:
In the book ???Now Discover Your Strengths??? by Buckingham and Clifton, the definition of strength is a ???consistent near perfect performance in an activity.??? The point in controlling strengths is to take advantage of them. Use them to the best of your ability when and where ever. Some of my own strengths and weaknesses are:
ADAPTABILITY: ???is one who is especially adept at accommodating to changes in direction/plan???. That is strength because I can adapt to any work setting and/or changes in projects. I am very go with the flow in life and that is the same for work.
BELIEF: ???one who strives to find some ultimate meaning behind everything they do???
I consider belief to be more of a weakness because I think I believe in my values too much at work. Being mixed up with such different people of different backgrounds is a good thing, like I said before I am very adaptable but my beliefs are not the same as everyone else??™s which can sometimes cause a problem for me in the workplace. I tend to believe everyone thinks like me but they don??™t.
CONSISTENCY: ???one who believes in treating everyone the same to avoid unfair advantage??? I see this as strength and a weakness. It is strength in the sense that I treat everyone the same in a work setting. Every person/employee is a valuable part of the team, that??™s how I have always believed. Favoritism doesn??™t fly with me because I believe in being fair and giving credit where credit is due. It is a weakness in a sense that there are some that put in the effort or actually care about their jobs but being consistent in treating everyone the same is unfair to those who work with the challenges of everyday instead of giving up. It is also a weakness in the fact that I am always the same that everyone already knows what I am bringing to the table.
EMPATHY: ???one who is especially in tune with the emotions of others.??? This is strength I love the most. I am extremely intuitive into others feelings. Empathy would be my entire life. I can always feel what others are feeling and can usually be pretty spot on about it. I feel that with the possibility of trying to understand others that in a management sense I can figure people out and be able to put them in the settings in which they would thrive the most.
RESPONSIBILITY: ???one who must follow through on commandments.??? This is a definite strength in the work setting. I am completely committed to the job I am given and to the deadline for that job or project. Once I am given a task, I will do all that I can to finish it and may not stop until I do because it is expected of me. That is being responsible.

My Professional Development Plan:
TIME: ACTIVITY: GOAL:

FALL 2011 Start Tulsa Community College Start my education pre-
Social work
SPRING 2012 start an internship with the Dept. To gain much needed
Of human services experience in human
Service.
SPRING 2013 Begin the University of Texas Get accepted to the school
At Austin of Social Work;
SPRING 2015 Volunteering as a Case Aide Gain more experience
With the Texas Dept. of Family and understanding for
And Protective Services the needs of children
FALL 2015 Begin my Master??™s Degree Gain the necessary
knowledge to move up
SPRING 2016 Become a student researcher and to get better at counseling,
Visitation supervisor and mentoring for visitation
To get practice in
Administering different
Levels and types of research
SPRING 2018 Graduate with a Masters Graduate Magna Cum Laude
Of Science in Social Work
SUMMER 2018 Start work as main administering researcher to have my own team
To build and manage
FALL 2018 Begin a possible Doctorate Still unsure

WORKS CITED:
Buckingham, Marcus and Clifton, Donald O., Ph.D. Now, Discover Your Strengths.
The Free Press: New York, 2001.

Dear Miss xxxx,
Here we are 5 years later from the time you took Keck??™s class on management principles. It was never your idea to look into management. It was your grandma??™s but she could see something in yourself you couldn??™t see. She could see the strengths you have to make it in management because you??™ve always been head strong and willing to tackle anything. So this is your futuristic letter from your ???former self??? to the strong leader you are today. I know you have been living an exciting and strong life by using your strengths in work and education.
I know you??™ve finished your Bachelors of Science in Social Work and on your way (or already there) to the University of Texas at Austin??™s School for Social Work. I can see you volunteering with the Texas Dept. of Family and Protective Services. I can see you doing your internship at the Center for Research. What is it you truly want to accomplish whittanni As of right now all you know is that you want to help children in the system but it??™s been FIVE years so there has got to be more to it??¦you should be doing the research necessary to help WHOLE FAMILIES. Helping with solutions to the obesity epidemic and drug crisis as well as educating parents on the right things to do for their children. I know our are doing awesome and keep up the good work. I am TRULY PROUD OF YOU??¦don??™t get too cocky??¦.and KEEP GOING. There is never too much to learn and never enough.
This may be from the past but it is your present,

The Early Years Practitioner Role in Practice

The Early Years Practitioner Role in Practice
CI 2310
This case study will make reference to the background and history of a child in my work placement. It will also include observations and an individual learning plan for the child. According to Nurseryworld (2006) observations are vital to understanding young children. Observations provide information about the child and are an important tool to discovering more about each child, as well as enabling practitioners to plan the correct level of learning in the best possible environment for the individual child. Observations are accepted as essential to a practitioner??™s role especially in terms of training and development. Observation are about watching the child??™s actions and behaviours and recording them over a period of time. They also show what the child is interested in, as well as highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the child being observed and essentially the child??™s skills can be recorded.
History and Background of Child ???A??™
Child A has been diagnosed with Autism with associated learning difficulties. Imray(2008) states that Autism is a complex, pervasive, developmental disorder, which affects every aspect of the child learning and development. Autism is a neurological condition affecting communication, social interaction, flexible thinking and behaviour. It is acceptable that children with autism are not expected to learn how to behave in a socially acceptable manner. There is no known cure for autism and so far teaching has to be adapted to suit the child with autism rather than the other way round. Autism is a condition of permanent stress and therefore brings out demanding and challenging behaviour. Furthermore Autism appears differently in every child according to Tilton(2006) signs and symptoms that appear in one child, may not emerge in another child that has also been diagnosed with autism. Signs and symptoms of autism are generally characterized by repetitive behaviours, attachment to odd toys, appearing to be off in their own world, sudden outbursts of anger or tantrums and lack of imaginative play.
Child A took quite some time to settle into her school routine and due to her lack of cooperation it has proven difficult to make meaningful assessments or gain a true picture of her abilities. However it has been the priority of the school to manage her behaviour through the introduction of strategies. There have been huge improvements in her behaviour, with much less physical aggression and child A is now enjoying taking part in many class activities. Child A has a twin brother, but he attends a different school, both the mother and father of child A work and her father is a Maths teacher in a different school. The mother of child A brings her to school each day and child A does find separation from her mother difficult and it can take some time to get her into class. Child A is fit and healthy and enjoys playing outdoors. Child A also enjoys singing, dancing, arts and crafts, cooking, being neat and tidy; she likes playing with her own hair as well as interacting with adults and her peers. Conversely child A does not like it if she does not get her own way. Child A does not like being dirty or untidy, she does not like unplanned changes and she does not like messy foods, for example baked beans. Her strengths are reading, social interaction and takes great pride in her work. Child A needs structure and routine, clear and consistent boundaries, little or no attention is to be paid to negative or challenging behaviour, along with clear and simple instructions. Child A and her areas for development are excepting help during new experiences and being able to consider alternatives.
I have found that child A has difficulty in situations when somebody says no to her child A will raise her voice and stomp away from the situation. She will then tell the staff that she is going home and she will get her coat and wait by the door in silence. If she is then approached whilst she is still unhappy she will then slap or spit at the staff involved. I have also found that her behaviour can become very loud if she cannot take control of a situation. Child A can take herself to the toilet but she then has difficulty washing her hands particularly using soap, this is because she is very sensitive to smells and child A is sometimes happier to use baby wipes instead. I have also observed that child A has a very limited diet within school and when she has chosen her food from the canteen she will sometimes change her mind once she has received it. I have decided to implement observations to help child A as she has many difficulties to over come. I will implement my own I.E.P (Individual Education Plan) with child A to record her progress over a few weeks.
Children with learning difficulties or other disabilities can benefit greatly from having an Individual Education Plan, they are put in place to help children achieve and succeed in school. Furthermore parents of the child can also become involved in putting together a plan of action for their child by working closely with the staff and teachers. Children with autism have varying needs and every I.E.P must be tailored to suit that individual child. KidsHealth (2012)
Principles and practices underpin effective provision in the early year and it starts with the unique child. Every child is very different including babies and older children. Finding out about each individual child is essential to planning and developing their abilities, strengths and weaknesses. Policies and principles underpinning the EYFS focus on the setting and the child??™s wellbeing. The provisions must focus around the children in order to meet their needs. In 2000 the EYFS was introduced and the most important attribute of the EYFS was that it has clearly defined principles that all practitioners are expected to uphold. Learning and development of each individual child is the foundation of the EYFS. The early years professionals are expected to record the progress of each individual child and then regularly share these records of development with the child??™s parents. The use of digital cameras and video??™s helps with observations and gives a clear view of the areas that are being recorded. Hutchin, V (2007)
According to Miller & Cable (2008) The U.K government are committed to a complete transformation of the children??™s workforce, which is designed to enhance life chances for all and ease inequalities in our society. Roles and responsibilities of early year??™s professionals include a high quality understanding of children and are able to use their correct research and theoretical knowledge. Early Years Professionals must be able to contribute to enhancement and modernization within a setting and can direct others by example. The Early Years Professional is planned to raise the standards in early year??™s settings as well as supporting other practitioners. The Early Years Professional is vital to the successful performance of the EYFS across the private and voluntary sector.

References
Hutchin, V (2007) Supporting Every Child??™s Learning across the Early Years Foundation Stage. London, Hodder Education
Imray,P(2008) Turning the tables on challenging behaviour. Oxon, Routledge
KidsHealth (2012) What??™s an IEP retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html on January 6th 2012
Miller, L & Cable, C (2008) Professionalism in the Early Years. Oxon, Bookpoint Ltd.
Nurseryworld (2006) Observing Children retrieved from http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/718219/Observing-children/DCMP=ILC-SEARCH on January 6th 2012
Tilton, A (2006) Children with Autism. Wiltshire, Antony Rowe Ltd
Scott, J & Ward, H (2005) Safeguarding and Promoting the Well-being of Children, Families and Communities. London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Problems in the Russian government

Essay:Problems in the Russian government?™pibrexpibrexpibrex,

Today Pibrex Russia is one of the largest polymers manufacturer around the world. It is used to be one of the Sweden™s giant company “ Pibrex AB™s subsidiaries. Pibrex Russia is really prominent in adhesives and commercial resins in the field. Pibrex Russia target clients are located in transport industry, assembly companies, and packaging, construction and real estate company. They keep their business and operation going on until the Russian Revolution. After the big giant “ Soviet Union fall, they have to switch their distribution channel to Finnish lines instead of their original one, couple with new Russia government™s economic reform, the Pibrex Russia turn himself into an open stock company, and they establish their first sub-branch at Kaliningrad, next second brand opened in Moscow, Khemki, where produce the large portion of plastic moldings with polymers. In order to make their operation more agility and more close to consumer market, they set up their region office “ Pibrex AO in Peterburg, and their head office in Moscow named Pibrex Russia. However the outcome didn™t goes well as they expected. They encounter the company structure issues. Pibrex™s subsidiaries located in different area, and they have to subject to the different account standards and principles, which means the four company have to account separately. Owing the financial conflict, they dismiss the Moscow headquarters and shut down the office, and workers been shifted to the Khemki plant. This merge failed to create any valuable thing, and the outcome were quite damaging. The senior management turn out to be sheer and utter incompetence and the worker lose their faith to their own company. For instance, the manager in Pibrex is ten times greater than common workers. Nobody have courage to stand up and take responsibilities and accountabilities for this situation. The board bring an American president and select Elena Michailova to take change of financial work. 


Issues:
Short terms 
1. Financial issues
Pibrex™s finance total out of control, inflation seriously hurt Pibrex Russia margin, investment in the new plants causing Pibrex™s operating capital goes down, frankly speaking, they run out of their cash flow. Moreover, Pibrex™s salary wasn™t reflect the company™s situation. Managers make too much money however workers™ salary were significantly thin. 

2. Team work issues
The recent setback result plenty of works lose their jobs. The new CEO come from American he bring American leadership style into this company, but his workers need time to accommodate it. All in all , the majority of this company no longer trust their managers, and hardly talk to their supervisor, leadership group lose every credits in this company

Long terms:
1. Managers™ should demonstrate that they still have plans for the future and arent just looking for someplace to hole up until retirement to earn worker™s trust. They are playing office politics, never participating manager-worker meeting or setting up goals, hardly keep in touch with upper boss, following up and monitoring the progress.

2. In Pibrex Russia, managers has failed taken his accountabilities, and workers didn™t think themselves as a unit with a clear identity, they didn™t feel any sort of ownership of this organization, because managers spent most of their time in handling the office politics, to be honest, senior managers hardly familiar what™s going on every day. If managers doesn™t have a good idea what the organization is try to achieve, then his employee doesn™t too. 

3. Working conditions are poor. The plant™s operating equipment are not efficiency, and worker are worked in an unhealthy environment. The machine out there are build decade years ago, workers don™t have accurate operational data to precisely control their business. Water in the factory are dirty, nobody wants drink it. 

Analysis

We can use three why to figure out what will account for such miserable situation. 

1. Structure — Pibrex Russia™s problem is basically belong to organization structure issue. Their account principles are out of date, they still using hand to keep accounting records, modern office supply are not sufficient. They have too much people to perform their business. Managers and workers are not trust each other. 
2. Corporation and coordination “ In this firm, we can see, there is no any kind of coordination, when they work , they never set up the objective collectively, managers are hardly to meet , no one exchanging mutual viewpoint freely around the company , nobody sharing their knowledge and ideas actively and openly;
3. Government “ In this case, the local government never do anything to stop the bankrupt. They should help the company to apply or directly make a loan. However, sadly, we didn™t see it. 

Alternatives
Pibrex Russia has hired some specialist to help them target the issues and figure out what cause the current chaos. They hope such action can catch up with latest the technology, and make the company more competitive than past. 

Criteria
? The company should open to change.
? The company update their production facilities.
? The company should solve their negative cash flow issue. 

Decision 

Pibrex Russia finally get ready to embrace changing. The company starts from their headquarter. Donaldson been told he is free to leave the company. But due to his past contribution, he can stay in the company until he find new employment. Elena now taking charge of company™s daily routine, he promise to make a big move to this senility organization. The company eventually gets the capital , and they can finally bring some new machine to the workplace, couple with new employee training program in progress, I am very glad to forecast, it will getting better and better ?   ?-Z?

Pg&E Microenvironment

One of the most importing forces in PG&E??™s current Microenvironment is the Public environment. PG&E has been dominating the local media in the past few months because of a gas line explosion, which has caused a lot of negative publicity. The public opinion of PG&E can affect the company in many ways. One is in public elections that can affect the monopoly that PG&E holds. One example of this is Prop 16, which will be voted on this November and gives local government the ability to spend on alternate energy that would replace the need for PG&E.
An important force in PG&E??™s current Macroenvironment is the Natural Environment. The supply of raw materials effects PG&E plants and supply of gas and electricity, which affect prices for PG&E customers. Furthermore, environmental safety and scarcity of materials can encourage government and organizations to seek alternative sources of energy that would replace PG&E.
Even though PG&E has been put in a difficult position as a result of this gas pipeline explosion, they have done good job of handling the crisis. Their website has a lot of content in regards to the work they have done to fix the problem, including a $100 million fund to the recovery efforts. Also, they have shown that they are taking the steps the help avoid this crisis in the future by announcing the ???Pipeline 2020??? efforts, which will help create safer pipeline standards by the year 2020.
My recommendation to PG&E in dealing with this crisis is to start a campaign to show that PG&E is run and operated by typical people throughout the region. This will help so that people don??™t just see PG&E as a corporation, but a company ran by hard working people that we can all relate too. Perhaps have an ad of an employee who lost a home in San Bruno. And also show how hard employees are working around the clock to help fix the problem in San Bruno and to insure that this problem doesn??™t occur again.

The Duke

O??™Callaghan 1

The Duke

Many people saw John Wayne, also known as, ???The Duke???, as a very fascinating man, even up to his last breath. Most of the younger generation doesn??™t know who John Wayne is, and has probably never heard of him. The few that do, know he was a stubborn, hardheaded man, full of grit that never gave up. According to wikipedia.org ???He is famous for his distinctive voice, walk and height.???(1p) He is not just a man, he is a legend, a legend that will not be forgoten.
On May 27th 1907, John Wayne was born as, Marion Robert Morrison in Winchester Iowa. His middle name was later changed to Michael in 1912 when his brother was born. (Fagen, 5) His Father and Mother was, Clyde and Marry, Morrison. Marry was also known as Molly Morrison. As he grew older, he received the nickname ???duke???, in which was his dog??™s name. John Wayne spent so much time with his dog duke that the two of them became, ???Little Duke??? and ???Big Duke???. (www.biography.com) The name Duke stuck with him the rest of his life.
As John Wayne got older, in fall of 1925 he won a football scholarship to the University of Southern California, (USC). (www.biography.com) Due to an injury caused by bodysurfing, in Newport Beach, he got taken out of the game football and on to the screens of film acting. The Duke had been in a few films during college, and now he would start his new career there.

O??™Callaghan 2

John Wayne began, as an extra in a couple movies, working with director John Ford and director King Vidor in the Bardely??™s the Magnificent. The Duke received his big break from director Roaul Walsh in his first leading role in the Big Trail. It was then and there he took on a new name and became John Wayne. It was the Big Trail that started his career as a paid actor. Although the Big Trail was not a huge success, John Wayne??™s acting did not go unnoticed.
John Wayne??™s next role was the Ringo Kid in the film called Stagecoach, which was released in 1939 in March, and directed by John Ford. Ford had directed several movies before this one, but Stagecoach would be his first western movie in sound, and in Monument Valley where he did most of his later movies. John Wayne went on, staring in several hits like, Three Girls Lost, The Deceiver, Range Feud, Maker of Men, and Texas Cyclone. All in which he made less than 400 dollars a week. As time went by John Wayne did more films and was noticed more by the public.
Most people would say that the top ten of John Wayne??™s movies were these, The Searchers, in which John Wayne plays an Uncle of a young girl who gets captured by Indians, and doesn??™t stop looking for her until he finds her. This film was made in 1956 and the American Film Institute named it the Greatest Western of all time in 2008. (Wikipedia.org)

O??™Callaghan 3

Rio Bravo, a film made in 1959. The Duke plays a sheriff in a small western town, places a man in jail that has a rich, ruling, older brother, gunfights and all to serve justice. In El Dorado John Wayne helps a drunken friend who is a sheriff, get back on his feet and fight off the men who are taking over the town. In Fort Apache, he plays as a soldier of the frontier who fights off the last of the Apaches.
True Grit was one of his later movies, but his stubbornness hadn??™t died. He takes a young girl under his wing after a man murders her father she hired him to arrest. In making this film John Wayne received the Academy Award for Best Actor, and a Golden Globe award. When John Wayne received his award he stated this, ??? If I??™d known this, I??™d have put that eye patch on forty years ago.???(www.wikipedia.org)
She Wore A Yellow Ribbon is also a movie from when he was older. It was directed by John Ford, and released in 1949. He was a Capt. named Nathan Brittles who was on his last mission before retirement, and it won an Oscar. At the end of the movie Capt. Nathan Brittles, played by John Wayne comes back in the end to a higher rank. (www.imdb.com)
The Quite Man, one of director John Ford??™s best films, was about a man who goes back to his hometown in Ireland, and fights for the woman he loves. Wikipedia states that this movie was noted for its photography of the Ireland hillsides, and the long and climactic fight between Sean Thornton (John Wayne) and Will Danaher (Victor McLaglen), the brother of Mary Kate Danaher (Maureen O??™Hara).

O??™Callaghan 4

McLintock is another one of Wayne??™s westerns, directed by Andrew V. McLaglen and released in 1963. He played the role of George Washington McLintock. One of John Wayne??™s favorite quotes from this movie was, ???I havent lost my temper in 40 years; but, Pilgrim, you caused a lot of trouble this morning; might have got somebody killed; and somebody oughta belt you in the mouth. But I wont. I wont. The Hell I won??™t!??? (He belts him in the mouth). When his daughter Becky McLintock, played by Stefanie Powers, comes home from college, the Duke and Katherine Gilhooley McLintock (Maureen O??™Hara) fight out their marriage. (www.wikipedia.org)
The movie Big Jake was made in 1971 and directed by George Sherman. John Wayne plays the role of Jake McCandles. His grandson gets kidnapped by a group of gunslingers and threaten to kill the boy unless they deliver a million dollars. Jake had no idea he even had a grandson until his wife played by Maureen O??™Hara sends for him for his help. Mr. McCandles his Indian friend, and his sons travel behind a band of rangers to retrieve his grandson out of the hands of the killers.
North to Alaska was one of Wayne??™s movies that wasn??™t a western, but he still played the cowboy look. In 1960 he was a miner named Sam who lived in Alaska that struck it rich. After him and his partner found their gold, John Wayne was sent to retrieve his friend??™s fiance. When he gets to Seattle he finds out that his friends fiance married another man. So Sam brings back another girl to console his friends broken heart, but Sam ends up falling in love with her.

O??™Callaghan 5

Rio Grande, another movie about the lifestyle of soldiers in the Wild West directed by John Ford released in 1950. The theme was based after the Civil War. In this western John Wayne plays Lt. Col. Kirby Yorke, and his son, Trooper Jefferson Yorke, known as ???Jeff???, played by Claude Jarman Jr., unknowingly joins his father??™s troop after failing at college. His mother Mrs. Kathleen Yorke played by Maureen O??™Hara comes to the fort to get her son and take him home, but her son refuses. Fights, Indian raids, and excitement throughout the whole movie.
John Wayne didn??™t just act in westerns; he acted in several war movies. The Longest Day, a great name for this movie, most will agree that it is one of the longest movies ever. The Longest Day was mainly about the events of D Day. It was released in 1962, and it received two Oscars. It??™s a movie full of action, history, drama, and fighting.
Sergeant Striker was John Wayne??™s role in the movie Sands of Iwo Jima. Released in 1949, and nominated for Academy Awards for the best actor in leading role, best sound, recording, writing and motion picture story. Hard and tough he was to his recruits. One soldier in particular despises Striker and refuses to cooperate. Eventually the two fight out their frustration and make peace, and fight the enemies of America.
The Green Berets was a war movie in John Wayne??™s older age, released in 1968 during the highlights of the Vietnam War. In the movie a news reporter named George Beckworth (David Janssen) goes over seas to John Wayne??™s army camp to get

O??™Callaghan 6

information for a piece on an article to end the war. He experiences what the soldier experience and sees the ugly side of war. Beckworth still sees no reason why America should continue its involvement in the War, until something traumatic happened in the camp and he changes his mind, but knows he??™ll probably loose his job for writing a positive outlook on the war.
In the last days of his life he starred in a movie called, The Shootest. In this particular movie, John Wayne played an old gunslinger that was dying from a disease. He rents out from an older woman and her son till the day comes where he breathes his last breath. He takes the boy under his wing and teaches him things that a father might teach his son, but when his mother finds out that he??™s a famous gunslinger, the two begin to quarrel. In the movie he states, ???I wont be wronged, I wont be insulted, and I wont be laid a hand on. I dont do these things to other people, and I require the same from them.”(wikipedia.org) In the end John Wayne fights one last fight to the death between three other well-known gunmen.
This was John Wayne??™s last film before his death in 1997. There have been tales that John Wayne was diagnosed with cancer when this film was made, but the honest truth is that he had been in surgery, one of his lungs were removed, but no cancer. Not until three years later did John Wayne become ill with cancer.
He left behind a family of seven children and three wives, two divorced. Josephine Saenz was his first wife, in which they had four kids, two boys, two girls, Antonia, Melinda, Michael, and Patrick. Wayne and Josephine got a divorce a few

O??™Callaghan 7

years after. John Wayne then married his second wife, Esperanza Baur Diaz. After she accused Wayne of an affair with the actress from the movie Angel and The Bad Man, their marriage only lasted a few more years. His third wife was Palette, also known as Pilar Weldy, she and Wayne had three children, Aissa, John Ethan, and Marisa Carmella. The two were together for seventeen years, and then they drifted apart. In the last days of his life he was living with his secretary. (www.emanuellevy.com)
Many people have different views on John Wayne. Some see him as a legend, someone to look up to. Some don??™t like John Wayne, for one reason or another, whether it be his hard, and cold comments, or the way he plays a gunman in some of his movies. Brain D. O??™Callaghan stated that when he was younger he liked to watch cowboy movies and things about the western lifestyle. He was about ten years old when he watched his first John Wayne movie. In an interview the question was asked why he liked John Wayne, his reply was, ??? I like him because he was principled, he knew where he stood, and a patriotic. When Brian was asked what his favorite John Wayne movie was he paused for a moment and then stated, ??? I don??™t really have a favorite, when I was younger I really liked the Alamo, now I like the Quiet Man, McClintock, and the Cowboys. I don??™t really have a favorite though, I like a bunch of them.??? Many people have many different opinions on John Wayne and his career as an actor.
John Wayne played the lead in 142 movies total according to the Internet Movie Database. Many people enjoyed John Wayne??™s movies, many grew up with them. Some may have even been taught by them, to be strong and independent, courageous and to have integrity, all the qualities they thought the Duke had.

Pg 13 Movies

The Effects of PG and PG13 Movies
The team??™s research design is to randomly select two PG and two PG-13 movies and record the number of sexual content and violence occurred in each movie. Then, we observe and compare the numbers recorded of each movie. The point of our social research is to explain that sexual content and violence has been cause of incivility among the youth. Thus, our hypothesis indicates that the higher the rate of sexual content and violence in the media (X), the higher incivility among children (Y). Whereas, X indicates the independent variable and Y indicates the response variable.
Additionally, in order to do our research on sexual content and violence, we will explore other literatures that have been published about this particular topic and see what other researchers have observed about this study. The following are our reseasources:
(Just type in the authors and the book, journals, or articles they??™ve written about this particular topic and give a little summary of each one.)
According to the Motion Picture Association of Americas film-rating system, PG movies suggest parental guidance. MPAA expand this further by stating:

Some Material May Not Be Suitable For Children??¦the PG rating indicates, in the view of the Rating Board, that parents may consider some material unsuitable for their children, and parents should make that decision. The more mature themes in some PG-rated motion pictures may call for parental guidance. There may be some profanity and some depictions of violence or brief nudity. But these elements are not deemed as intense as to require that parents be strongly cautioned beyond the suggestion of parental guidance. There is no drug use content in a PG-rated motion picture. [1]
The above statement is stating that the parental guidance is suggested because some material may not be suitable for children. Additionally, there is no sexual or drug use content. However, there may be some profanity and violence portrayed.
On the other hand, according to the Motion Picture Association of Americas film-rating system, PG-13 movies require that parents are strongly cautioned. This is because some material may be inappropriate for children under thirteen. MPAA expands this by stating:
A PG-13 rating is a sterner warning by the Rating Board to parents to determine whether their children under age 13 should view the motion picture, as some material might not be suited for them. A PG-13 motion picture may go beyond the PG rating in theme, violence, nudity, sensuality, language, adult activities or other elements, but does not reach the restricted R category. The theme of the motion picture by itself will not result in a rating greater than PG-13, although depictions of activities related to a mature theme may result in a restricted rating for the motion picture. Any drug use will initially require at least a PG-13 rating. More than brief nudity will require at least a PG-13 rating, but such nudity in a PG-13 rated motion picture generally will not be sexually oriented. There may be depictions of violence in a PG-13 movie, but generally not both realistic and extreme or persistent violence. A motion picture??™s single use of one of the harsher sexually-derived words, though only as an expletive, initially requires at least a PG-13 rating. More than one such expletive requires an R rating, as must even one of those words used in a sexual context. The Rating Board nevertheless may rate such a motion picture PG-13 if, based on a special vote by a two-thirds majority, the Raters feel that most American parents would believe that a PG-13 rating is appropriate because of the context or manner in which the words are used or because the use of those words in the motion picture is inconspicuous. [1]
The above statement is stating that some material may be inappropriate for children under thirteen. This is because PG-13 movies typically portray violence, nudity, sensuality, language, and adult activities, such as drugs. However, the nudity in a PG-13 movie generally will not be sexually oriented.
Overall, the point of our social research is to inform people that sexual content and violence is the result of incivility among children. Our hypothesis is that the higher the rate of sexual content and violence in the media (X), the higher incivility among children (Y). Whereas, X indicates the independent variable and Y indicates the response variable. The team expects this relationship because today??™s socialization is television and mass media, which has become the dominant force in molding our minds. Many children have watched over thousands of sexual content and violence on TV and of course adults have watched many more. As a result, we have our thoughts and behavior structured based on what we see on TV and movie images, it is only natural that our behavior in society mirrors our thoughts. In other words, civilization tends to collapse as children and adults watch more and more sexual content and violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, we can conclude the following from the previous research that has been done on this particular topic:
(Re-phrase the summary of each books, article, or journals and what the author has to say)

Works Cited
1. “What Each Rating Means.” Motion Picture Association of America. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. . [1]