Reading and writing

Essay:Reading and writing

Sherman Alexie, a celebrated Native American writer, best known for his fictions, shares his journey of learning to read and write in the essay The Joy of Reading and Writing: Superman and Me. However, what started off as a leisure read turns into a tale of Native Americans™ struggle for literacy in contemporary times. Throughout the essay, Alexie™s narrative tone gradually tenses up, from calm and patient to slightly agitated. In masterfully manipulating his words and phrases, Alexie successfully conveys the hardship he experienced growing up as a Native American while fighting to alter his life path through reading and writing, and his genuine concern for the younger generation of his ethnic group (2006). This essay aims to analyze Alexie™s word crafts, through which he expresses, explains and appeals to his readers, and to grasp the purpose and intentions of particular words choices and sentence and paragraph structures. 

In consideration of the intimacy of the topic, Alexie introduces his essay with a clear personal touch by taking his readers to the time when he was a toddler, who had gotten his hands on a copy of the Superman comic books for the very first time. The experience depicted by Alexie is one that many readers, if not shared, must have acquired in a similar fashion. Immediately, the author skillfully connects with his readership, closing the gap of age, ethnicity, social background difference or differences of any kind. Upon establishing such connection, Alexie goes on telling his part of the story, in which he grew up in a big family constantly survived on minimum-wages and could barely support themselves. Introducing his family™s economic condition laid the foundation to contrast his father™s profound love for reading. Even when the family had to rely on government supplies, Alexie™s father did not give up on reading. And inspired by his father, Alexie began to read everything he could reach as well. Despite the description of the family™s unfortunate living condition, this part of the essay does not aim to invite sympathy. The author™s stream of thought progresses naturally through narration in a calming tone, engaging the readers to join him along his journey of learning to read. 

Alexie begins to recall the process through which he taught himself to read in the following paragraphs. He patiently walks through how he understood the concept and purpose of dividing texts into paragraphs, and how he was overly excited and began to see his surroundings in paragraphs at the same time. Furthermore, he also explains the procedure of him learning to read, that he would describe the picture in his own words and pretend the narrative alongside the picture was telling the same content. The reasons that Alexie goes through the trouble to reminisce his childhood discovery are: first, that he wants to share with his readers the delirious joy of grasping the techniques of reading; and second, that he believes that his exponential learning curve was astounding considering he was self-taught, yet he did not receive the necessary recognition for his talents due to his ethnicity and social standing. In establishing such belief, the author cleverly corresponds with his main topic, while building up his argument leading to the next portion of his essay.

Indians are expected to underperform academically, as explained by the author, who listed three examples of Indian children forced to live up to the expectation submissively in social occasions, while they are, in fact, intelligent and high-achieving individuals within their own communities. Contrasting to those Indian youngsters who succumb to social norms, Alexie describes his personal battle against convention, which was also his struggle to steer his life path through reading aggressively. In the next paragraph, Alexie repeats the word read fourteen times, claiming that he was reading everything at anytime and anywhere, with the sole purpose of emphasizing his desperation to change his life by absorbing as much knowledge as he could. Breaking down the boundaries was no easy task, and this is what Alexie tries to inform his readers through his deliberate repetition. Interestingly, the example Alexie chose to showcase how he taught himself to read in the prior paragraph bears metaphorical indication. The image, as Alexie describes, showed Superman heroically breaking down a door, which is much likely to reflect the author™s acquiring the skills of reading is breaking down the doors of limitations stemmed from social stereotypes and unfair expectations. 

The career choice of becoming a writer may seem viable to the most, yet it is hardly imaginable to Native Americans as they were, in a way, robbed of such possibilities as children. To eventually become an accomplished writer is a breakthrough, not only for Sherman Alexie as an individual, but for his entire community as well. His achievement lights up the prospects for younger generations, while he continues to push further for the struggles of his ethnicity™s social standing by teaching Indian children to read and write. At the end of his essay, Alexie refers to the Indian kids already defeated by social expectations and reiterates his analogy of doors as stereotypes and limitations. Once again, he throws himself against the doors, in attempt to shatter the deeply rooted conventional beliefs. As the metaphors resonated with the prior parts of the essay, Alexie fights on his battle for literacy and unlimited possibilities in life, only not for himself this time, but for his community. 

It is evident that the Native Americans suffer from unfair disadvantages in the course of personal development due to ethnicity and long-established social barriers. With ingenious text construction that shares his personal struggles against social norms, Alexie accentuates, reflects, and resonates, creating an inerasable impression on his readers of the importance of literacy, especially to contemporary Native Americans.  ?-Z?

The Dreams of Dr Kalam

How to Spot a Liar
The techniques below will show you how to tell if you are being lied to. These techniques are used by government agencies for interrogation. They can easily be utilized in relationships and in business situations. To learn more about these and other techniques, I recommend you pick up a copy of Bust Liars – this guide will teach you everything you need to know about catching liars in the act!
To make successful use of these indicators, it helps to know the suspects normal body language and reactions to different situations.
1. Movements – Expressions will be stiff. Liars will use fewer hand movements and take up less space. All physical actions will generally take up less space than usual.
2. Face touch – Liars will touch the area around their lower face, i.e. scratching the nose, touching the lips or chin. This is an instinct from birth, much like when a child covers his own mouth after a lie, only it has developed through age into less obvious actions.
3. Eye movement – The eyes of dishonest people will tend to move around a lot to avoid meeting your gaze. However, staring at your eyes for prolonged periods is also an indicator of a lie. This is often because liars have learned that their eye movements are a giveaway and they are trying to control them.
4. Pupils – Pupils will dilate when a lie is told; this is due to the adrenalin being pumped into the body. This factor will also depend on the severity of the lie. Small white lies may not dilate the pupils.
5. Stance – Liars often feel uncomfortable standing directly in front of an accuser and may avoid standing with their shoulders squared to yours. Instead, they might stand slightly to the side or with their shoulders offset.
6. Expressions – Expressions are limited to the mouth, e.g. if a liar fakes a smile, he will only use selected muscles whereas a natural smile utilizes muscles over the whole face.
7. Palms – Liars often try to hide the palms of their hands. This is also instinctive. Hands behind the back or in the pockets are also positive indicators.
8. Objects – Liars will play with objects in their possession such as a handbag, bracelet, mobile phone or hair. They may also put an obstruction between themselves and the other person, often something as simple as a coffee cup. This is a subconscious way of attempting to ???barricade themselves to relieve the tension of lying.
9. Tone – A liars tone of voice is often not consistent with his/her gestures or statements.
10. Sarcasm – Dishonest people will often use sarcasm when answering accusations.
11. Answers to questions – A liar uses your words to answer questions, e.g. Q: “Did you have relations with this woman” A: “I did not have relations with that woman.”
12. Too many details – Dishonest people will add unnecessary detail to the conversation; this is an attempt to comfort the other person.
13. Nonsensical – Often liars words wont make sense and their grammar may be incorrect. This is because a liars mind is racing in search of a convincing answer and the signals to the mouth are sent incorrectly.
14. Avoiding direct answers – Liars sometimes imply answers instead of denying something directly. This allows them to avoid lying by not making admissive statements. By doing this, it gives them the possibility of going back on their answers and changing them.
15. Defensive – Guilty people usually get defensive at the first indication of an accusation whereas honest people will get offensive.
16. Subject – A liar will often change the subject; a liar will be comfortable with the change with the belief that his lies have been believed. If honest, a person would be confused as to why a potentially serious subject would be changed. He would be more likely to disregard the subject change and pursue the original conversation.

Pettlep Imagery Review

Effects of PETTLEP Imagery on Sports Performance
Literature Review:
Imagery as a means of assisting success has been used in a variety of applications. Specifically, the use of imagery in enhancing sports performance has been particularly researched, in recent years. The PETTLEP motor-based imagery process has demonstrated encouraging results in a variety of sports, including: golf, hockey, gymnastics, and weight lifting. However, there is still a question regarding if these results can be generalized to other sports and even other facets of the sports already involved in studies and whether or not the results will be found long-term.
Holmes and Collins (2001) pioneered the seven-component imagery process known as PETTLEP imagery. In Holmes and Collins process, there are seven factors that are taken into consideration when implementing this motor-based imagery. These components include: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The authors surmised that the brain stores memories that are accessed by physical preparation and execution, especially motor imagery that is related to preparation and execution. Their seven-point checklist is an evidence based method that highlights the areas that should be monitored, to enhance the efficacy of the imagery on the physical task. Several researchers have used the PETTLEP imagery practice in their research to determine its effectiveness.
Wright and Smith (2009) compared the effects of PETTLEP imagery with the results obtained using more traditional imagery, on muscle strength in its subjects. Fifty participants were divided into five groups consisting of those who used: PETTLEP, traditional imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and practice, and a control group. Over a course of six weeks participants in the PETTLEP, combination and physical practice groups showed improvement in their strength. Interestingly, there were no marked differences in improvement between the participants who used PETTLEP and those who were in the physical practice group. Although these results seem to support the use of PETTLEP for strength improvement, there are limitations to the research. The study period, six weeks, was quite short. The question of whether or not these same results would be seen for longer periods of study needs to be answered. Other muscle groups should be tested to see if the bicep results can be generalized to the entire body. In addition, whether or not these results can be applied to specific tasks needed to complete sports-specific tasks needs to be demonstrated.
Smith, Wright, and Cantwell (2008) studied the effects of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two participants were divided into four groups including: PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice, and a control group. At the end of the six-week experiment, it was found that all groups, apart from the control group, improved significantly. The group who utilized a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice improved the most. Like Wright and Smith (2008), there was also no significant difference found in the level of improvement between the PETTLEP group and the physical practice group. Once again, there is a concern regarding the long-term applicability of the PETTLEP intervention, as the experiment was conducted over such a short duration; however, these results seem to confirm the findings of the previously reviewed research. This would indicate that, at least in the short-term, there is just as much benefit garnered from using PETTLEP imagery as there is in actual physical practice, when it comes to improving performance. Similar sport-specific performance improvement was found in the earlier study conducted by Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007).
Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007) compared the effects of PETTLEP-based imagery against the improvements found with the use of traditional imagery, in hockey players and gymnasts. In the first study, 48 varsity hockey players were divided into four groups. These groups included: sport-specific imagery, clothing imagery, traditional imagery, and a control group. Following a six-week period, the sport-specific group saw the most improvement in penalty flicks. Other than the control group, the traditional imagery group experienced the least amount of improvement. The authors second study featured 40 junior gymnasts. These participants were divided into four groups that included: PETTLEP, stimulus only imagery, physical practice, and a control group. As was found in both Wright and Smiths (2009) and Smith, Wright, and Cantwells (2008) research, there was significant improvement in both the PETTLEP and physical practice performance; however, both groups improved equally. Yet again, there are questions in whether or not the success of this intervention can be applied universally. To help clarify this, research regarding the timing element of the PETTLEP was conducted (Jenny & Munroe-Chandler, 2008).
Jenny and Munroe-Chandlers (2008) research focused on the timing element of the PETTLEP intervention. The researchers examined the performance effects of three imagery conditions, in regards to soccer dribbling. In addition to the timing variables, the results were also compared to a physical practice group and a control group. Ninety-seven subjects were divided into five groups including: real-time imagery, slow-motion imagery, slow motion concluded with real-time imagery, physical practice, and a control group. All groups, apart from the control group, showed significant improvement in time and errors. All four experimental groups improved to the same degree. However, the control group also showed improvement in time, during the dribbling task, but not the number of errors. These results make the research inconclusive when applied to the timing aspect of improvement of the task. It also raises considerable doubts regarding the universal application of PETTLEP for improving sports performance.
The PETTLEP imagery intervention has demonstrated through the reviewed literature its value in improving performance in certain, specific sports aspects. However, there are still many questions that need to be answered. Most importantly, none of the studies reviewed were longer than six weeks in length. Therefore, more research needs to be conducted to see if initial performance improvements are continued over time. In addition, as found in Jenny and Munroe-Chandlers (2008) research, some areas of improvement may not be due to any intervention at all. This raises the question on how much of the previous findings can be generalized.