Physical Development Age O to 1

TDA 2.1
Task 1 Child and Young Persons Development.
Learning outcome 1.1
Know the main stages of child and young person??™s development.

The age of development from 0 to 1 is a period of very fast, physical development.
? From no coordination at birth. They start to gain control of eye muscles.
? To about three months of age they can start to hold their own head up, for short periods of time.
? Around about five to six Months they are capable of pulling their self in to a sitting postion, and with support sit upright, also they start learning to roll over on their own.
? About nine months they can wriggle and crawl on their own and sit up without support. Also they can use a pincher grip to pick up objects.
? Coming up to the year old mark most babies are able stand whilst having support as they have learnt to control their legs and feet

Followed by communication, which at this age starts off with
? Mainly crying, (for food, attention or pain).
? Moving on to cries grunts and coos around two to three months.
? Then on to babbling sounds.
? Followed by the possibility to make most of the vowel sounds and about half of the consonants.
? At the stage of around eleven to twelve months they are able to make one or two words; immatate sounds, and be able to respond to simple commands.
Also we have the emotional social and behavioural moods starting
? From birth onwards we start with helplessness with generalised tension and distress
? To may be being soothed by rocking, enjoying a cuddle and perhaps smiling at a face.
? Followed by specific emotional attachment to mum and can get very upset when separated from her.
? Later they expect to be washed fed and dressed and are able to respond to their own name.
? And around twelve months enjoys a game of ???peek a boo??? to playing pat a cake, and understands the word ???No ??“ No???. But also they have the ability to give and take objects.

Who is sacagawea

” Who Was Sacagawea “,

Who Was Sacagawea, and How Did She Evolve as A Person President Thomas Jefferson in 1803 asked for funding from Congress for Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the western territories between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. Not only to find a full trade route to the Pacific Ocean, but also to study the people and to trek new territories.

Along the trek a new leader and important person in American history would emerge. While camping at Fort Mandan, Lewis and Clark encountered Charbonneau and asked him to come West with them as their interpreter. They wanted him to talk peace for them to the natives to assure them an easy trip West. It was also under the understanding that Sacagawea, Charbonneaus wife, could also come along and be recruited as the interpreter through Toussaint. It is to my understanding that they didn™t like Toussaint much, and that Sacagawea was really the one they wanted. They also knew that when they needed to cross the Rockies they would need help from the Shoshones, who were well known as being horseman, and they wanted someone who spoke Shoshone. They knew Sacagawea spoke Shoshoni as well as Hidatsu, which was an important trait because she could speak to the Shoshone and get horses for them.

Although Sacagawea was very young, Lewis and Clark knew they would need her desperately. Clark, more than Lewis, respected the Indians as fully human, and treated them as sources of information rather than as bothersome savages, like most explorers did. So, they both knew she would be useful. “?they knew that his wife could speak Shoshoni as well as Minitari as well as French. And they knew that, that they needed to get horses from the Shoshoni in order to make the crossing over the Rockies, over the Bitterroots, and the Shoshoni were the Indians living closest to the Bitterroots” says Erica Funkhouser, a historian (Funkhouser, PBS online) Also, the captains were okay with the idea of having a woman interpreter for the reason that they thought a woman on board of a ship of men makes them look less barbaric and more friendly. “A woman with a party of men is a token of peace.” as Clark noted in his journal. Which also gave the captains a head up with the natives. “?sometimes we don™t realize and that is by carrying a woman along, especially a woman who was carrying an infant, said to tribes this is not a party that is out for aggressive reasons. This is not a war party.” (Least, PBS online) There are many legends and stories that are believed to be true about where Sacagawea was born, grew up, and lived. This is the one that I researched through my information, to whom knows if it is true or not.

To my knowledge Sacagawea was born the daughter of the Shoshone chief (Idaho) but was captured at age eleven by an enemy tribe, the Hidatsa (or Minitari) of Knife River (North Dakota). Later to be sold (or won as some believe) as the “wife” a la facon du pays (after the fashion of the country) of Toussaint Charbonneau (a French-Canadian trapper/fur trader). Sacagawea would then live with Toussaint at his Mandan Village home. Sacagawea was very young at the time; one story tells me she was only fourteen. A few months after she was “married” and she was pregnant. Charbonneaus pregnant wife gave birth to a baby boy at Fort Mandan, February 11, 1805, and was given the Christian name Jean Baptiste Charbonneau. Nicknamed Pomp by Clark, Pomp was brought along to the Pacific and back to Mandan during 1805-1806. Later, Pomp was taken in by William Clark, who had grown fond of him; while his father, Toussaint Charbonneau, returned to work with the American Fur Company. “Sacagawea played an important role, not as a guide as she™s been mythologized into, but as a person who could read the landscape fairly well. I think she could read rivers. She could read a valley, you know. She had a sense of what the landscape said about direction and where they, where they were going” explains Erica Funkhouser, a historian. (Funkhouser, PBS online) When the captains reached the Pacific, in November 1805, they needed to contact the Shoshone tribe, in which to borrow horses they required in order to hike across the “Rock Mountains”. They used Sacagawea to talk to them because they knew she knew their language. She came to find out that her older brother, Cameahwait, was the chief of the band (taken over after her fathers death). With that benefit, she talked to her brother and the Shoshone tribe and convinced them to allow Lewis and Clarks men to use the horses they needed to complete their task. Although Sacagawea could have left Lewis, Clark and her husband behind and return to her family she did not. Five months later Lewis and Clark were back at Fort Mandan where Sacajawea, Charbonneau, and their son Jean Baptiste stayed while the “Corps of Discovery” went on to St. Louis. “Clearly, she was able to direct them topographically at certain key moments to help them along. It also was truly a stroke of luck that when they got on the other side of Lemhi pass and came down the western side of the Continental Divide that she ran into into her people again. To her great surprise, her brother was now the chief. “, says William Least (Heat-Moon, PBS online). If not for Sacagaweas connections with the Shoshone tribe Lewis and Clark never would have gotten the horses necessary to continue the trip. I think that is was pure coincidence that Sacagawea ran into her brother, which in turn gave her a great advantage, and got the horses. It would have been so much harder to get what they needed had not she known them. Without Sacagaweas knowledge during the whole trip I don™t even think that they would have even reached the Shoshone tribe. Even if by chance they would have without her assistance, Toussaint wouldn™t have been able to sway Cameahwait to lend the horses.

As the only woman on the trip, she also cooked, searched for food, and sewed, fixed and cleaned the clothes of the men. In one important occasion written in Clarks journals, she saved records and instruments from being lost overboard during a storm. So, all in all, without Sacagaweas guidance, knowledge, interpretations, connections, and general voice for Lewis and Clark; they would never have been able to attempt to find the water route to the west. While she was able to point out a few landmarks, and her company was greatly helpful in a lot of ways, its clear that she didnt herself lead the explorers in their journey, but was merely an aid.

The later fate of Sacagawea is uncertain. Some stories say she died in an epidemic of “putrid fever” late in 1812. Other versions say that she rejoined the Shoshone on their Wind River reservation and died there in 1884. Yet another version is that Clark arranged for Sacagawea and Charbonneau to live in St. Louis. Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, and shortly after died of an unknown illness. Clark legally adopted her two children, and educated Jean in St. Louis and Europe. He became a linguist and later returned to the west as a mountain man. It is unknown what happened to the daughter, Lisette. “Sacagawea came back to St. Louis a citizen of the West and someone who had citizenship no place. Where does she belong Where is her home Does she belong at a Hidatsa village Does she belong with her Shoshoni relatives Does she belong back at Fort Clatsop Can she ever belong in St. Louis If ever there was a person in the expedition™s history who was displaced, who was person out of time, person out of the world, person who belonged nowhere, it™s Sacagawea.” explains Jim Ronda (Ronda, PBS online) Jim Ronda thinks that Sacagawea belongs nowhere, but in fact she belongs in so many locations that it really doesnt matter where she ends up. She indeed could return to her Shoshoni relatives and live the rest of her life with her family whom she may have not known but she loved. She also could return to the Hidatsa village and live with the people she grew up with. Although it would be an odd situation, she could have also gone along with her husband and followed him with his fur trapping life.

During her years with the Lewis and Clark expeditions she found many places she could in the end call “home”. She was welcomed everywhere she went Im sure, as an interpreter her job is to be the peacemaker. Although Sacagawea, in the end, didnt leave any known truth about where she lived after the expeditions were completed, Im sure it probably wasn™t very hard for her to find a place to call “home”.-M


The Euro and What It Entails

Dario Rainone
English 102-059
26 February 2011
The Euro and What It Entails
July 1st, 2002, marked a historic date as the beginning of a centralized monetary policy among the countries of the Eurozone. The German Mark, the French Franc, the Italian Lira and various other local currencies ceased to exist to be replaced by the Euro. Although the history of the Euro began with the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, which set forth the creation of the European Union, the idea of a single European currency dates back to the post World War I era. Its purpose would have been to avoid an ever-increasing economic division within Europe due to several new nation states. The modern, actual implementation of the Euro served primarily to improve economic growth, ease the exchange rate volatility of former currencies, and offer a greater financial integration among markets. Over the decades however, the degree of political union in Europe never caught on with the economic unification. Due to a lack of adequate political union within Europe, the monetary union set forth by the Maastricht Treaty is not a realistic long-term prospect.
The European economy finds itself in a difficult situation that Americans and even Europeans often overlook. In countries of the Old World that are less affected by the Euro crisis, little is discussed about the crippling debt and unemployment that other neighboring nations are facing. This phenomenon is not due to a scarcity of information, but rather to a lack of the public??™s interest. Although the Euro was supposed to strengthen the spirit of European unity, it is not always apparent to Europeans that they are now part of a larger economy, in which all European countries are dependent on each other.
Since its establishment, the Euro has defined a clear line that separates the wealthier countries of Europe from the poorer. The differences appear striking. Several countries of Europe, such as Greece and Italy, have abnormally high public-debt levels. This raises the question of whether or not they are going to be able to serve their bond obligations during a time of low economic growth. In addition, it would not be possible to redistribute transfers to the countries with high debt, due to a lack of a centralized federal budget. The absence of a ???financial-solidarity mechanism??? makes subsidizing deficit regions in Europe extremely difficult (De Grauwe). On the other hand, in a country like the United States of America, with a central government and federal budget, deficit regions are alleviated by deficit redistributions.
In America, this is made possible not only through a political and economic system, but also through a common culture and sentiment of solidarity among the individual states. In contrast, up until seventy years ago, Europe was a continent literally devastated by war. A sense of animosity, hatred, and a state of imperialism governed the political relations of countries. Despite a current, long-term state of peace, European nations still hold inherently different values, which reflect themselves in the state of the economy and politics. The European Commission has been attempting to create and promulgate a sense of European identity, appealing to the historical and cultural heritage of the European continent as a whole. Nevertheless, the creation of a monetary union, where nations collaborate toward each other??™s economic interest, cannot last without a common culture and language. The recent unwillingness of Germany and France to create a Euro-bond market corroborates this notion (Dempsey). Furthermore, transferring taxes within Europe is an idea on which European nations greatly disagree upon. A pole conducted in January 2011, shows that two-thirds of German voters oppose extra aid for indebted euro (Czuczka). An article from the British magazine, The Spectator, titled The Euro Is Great- Let??™s Have Two of Them, summarizes this dissent by stating that, ???It would be difficult to see how it would be politically feasible for the French government to raise taxes on its citizens and redistribute them to assist displaced Portuguese fishermen??? (Korski).
A single culture and stable economy lack even within certain countries of Europe. Italy is a country consisting of two opposing socio-economic scenarios: the north and south. Since the 1950s, the north and central regions have benefited from the economic miracle of the post-war era, while the south has always remained economically undeveloped. The northern work ethics and mentality are also intrinsically different from the southern ones. These profound disparities are leading the nation toward a system of federalism, where the northern regions demand greater political and economic autonomy and wish to be dissociated from their southern counterparts. As Professor Michel Huysseune, Ph.D. in political science, explains in his essay titled, Federalism and the Extreme Right in Italy, ???The idea of federalism has acquired political prominence in Italy as a consequence of the crisis of Italy??™s political system and of the secessionist challenge of the Lega Nord [a right-wing political Italian party].??? The idea of a more federal Italy is an on-going debate in Italian politics. If a political and economic union cannot be reached within the individual countries of Europe, it is difficult to picture political and economic unity throughout the entire continent of Europe.
Dividing the Euroland (set of European nations where Euro is the national currency, also referred to as Eurozone) into two monetary zones has been a long sought solution by many policymakers to eliminate the economic gap between the wealthy and lagging countries. The proposal consists in the establishment of two Euro currencies: a strong Euro operational in countries with great potential of growth and a cheap one for the rest of the Eurozone. As Professor Michael Arghyrou from the Cardiff Business School stated in a university journal publication, ???The two-currency solution would ensure that countries with strong economies are not responsible for bailing-out others, whilst giving struggling economies breathing space to recover and implement reforms without undergoing severe hardship.??? Although various economists from all over Europe agree that implementing a two-Euro currency might be the last resort to rescue the Euro, it would also be a hypocritical and counterproductive strategy. The purpose of a unified Europe has always been to compete with America, aid the poorer countries of Europe, and harness Germany??™s powerhouse to revive the economy of the post-communist block. A two-speed Europe would only offend the weaker nations and damage the vision of a true European Union that visionaries throughout the decades have long imagined.
Chancellor of Germany, Angle Merkel, stated during the annual World Economic Forum of 2011 in Davos, Switzerland, ???We are going to defend the euro — there is no doubt about this. [??¦] The euro is our currency and is much more than just a currency; it is, if you like, the embodiment of the Europe of today. Should the euro fail, Europe will fail.??? Her assertion demonstrates the honest willingness of the core countries of Europe to create a solid European Union, with a single economy and common values and interests. Even though a two-speed Euro might secure the viability of the Euro and would benefit both the wealthy and lagging nations of Europe, it would not reflect the determination to save the vision of Europe that European leaders have expressed. Unless Europe??™s nations reach a consensus to establish a real political union, the Euro currency and the European idea that it entails are not realistic long-term prospects.

Works Cited
Arghyrou, Michael. “Two-Currency EMU Might Be ???Last Resort??™ for
Eurozone.” Cardiff Business School (2011): 1. Web. 01 Mar 2011.
The article above written by the professor of macroeconomics, finance, and economics of the European Union at the Cardiff Business School in Cardiff, Wales, serves as primary evidence for my thesis, inasmuch it states how a two-speed Euro might be the last resort to save the Euro currency.

Czuczka, Tony. “Merkel Demands Euro-Area Debt Reductions in Return for Help From
Germany.” Bloomberg (2011): n. pag. Web. 03 Mar 2011. .
This report contains a quote from Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, in which she expresses her determination to keep the Euro and the idea of Europe alive at any cost. In addition, she sets in place the conditions that countries currently in-debt have to respect if they expect financial help from Germany. The article also includes a statistics on what percent of Germans are in favor of extra aid for the indebted Euro.

De Grauwe, Paul. “Euro Has No Future Without a Political Union: Paul De Grauwe.”
Bloomberg (2011): n. pag. Web. 02 Mar 2011. .
In his piece on the Euro crisis, Paul De Grauwe explains how the Euro currency does not have a future unless the countries of Europe settle to create a greater political union than is currently in place. He also refers to a ???financial-solidarity??? mechanism in times of crisis in nations with a centralized budget.

Dempsey, Judy. “Euro Bonds Rejected by Germany and France.” NY Times (2011): 1.
Web. 04 Mar 2011. .
In her article on the latest news in terms of Euro policy, Judy Dempsey reports that France and Germany have expressed their unwillingness to create Euro-bond markets. Yet, despite this, it seems that their number one priority is to defend the Euro and the vision of Europe. It serves to support my thesis on how a lack of political union leads to a default situation where implementing policy and reaching agreement is often difficult.

Huysseune, Michael. ???Federalism and the Extreme Right in Italy???, Federalisme
Regionalisme, Volume 2: 2001-2002 – Extreme droite et federalisme
In his essay on Federalism in Italy titled, Federalism and the Extreme Right in Italy, Professor Huysseune outlines the increasing popularity of the Italian rightist party in Italy and also the intrinsic socio-economic differences between the north and south in Italy. It supports the idea behind my paper that a European Union cannot be reached unless the individual countries within Europe are culturally and economically united in the first place.

Korski, Daniel. “The Euro is so great ??“ let??™s have two of them.” Spectator (2011): 1.
Web. 02 Mar 2011. .
This journal article from British magazine, The Spectator, explains the possibility of a two-speed Euro and also details how transferring taxes within Europe is a notion on which nations often disagree upon. It serves as evidence for my paper to prove that without political union and a sense of solidarity in Europe, mutual aid cannot always be distributed among nations.

Physical Design and Implementation

Physical Design and Implementation

Professor: Peter Chow
Introduction to relational database management

??? The security mechanisms available for a database and how the data will be protected

While discussing about the security requirements in the overall technical design, there are various attributes which need to considered and play significant role. The most important being eases to the user front in terms of access of data. The numbers of applications that have been deployed for users such as online querying and access to office resources have proved effective both to the service provider as well as the users. The users can access useful information from anywhere in the world through internet. Network level security is utmost important for the given scenario. Security checks need to be present at various nodes of the network to check whether authentic applications with correct details is flowing in the system or has been corrupted. Proper encryption and decryption techniques should be followed so that no outsider can access the data and probably misuse it. (Noureddine,2005)

??? Explain how to defeat SQL injection attacks since the database will be publicly accessible

Network systems and visiting for sites may carry information from and to many systems. This leads the applications to be infected by unwanted malicious threats. Hence attention should be paid as to keep a track on authentic application code. Threats can transmit from one system to another with data to be transferred. If one system is infected and data is sent from that system to another (for example a file) then malicious threat may replicate and infect the destination system also. Software threats are increasing every moment. Hence the software that checks these threats should be updated regularly so that no threat goes unchecked. Moreover the updated software should be provided to users as soon as possible. (Khamal, 2007)

If any task requires that data be transmitted from one application to another then care should be taken on authenticity of data and possible risk related to transfer. For example if data has to be transmitted between two or more clouds then security of data needs to be maintained along with validity of the data. Information transmits from one system to another and hence making it susceptible for misuse. Sensitive data should be transmitted with great security. The offenders of the terms and conditions that are specified in the application should be prosecuted in appropriate court of law. The solution to making the given scenario more secure should be applied on end users system, along with at the service provider end, network security, abiding rules and policies of the corporation and specifying terms and conditions of use of applications to the users. (Khamal, 2007)

??? Outline the physical design of your database.


??? SQL commands you will use to create your database tables.


PersonID int,

LastName varchar(255),

FirstName varchar(255),

Address varchar(255),

City varchar(255)


Noureddine A. (2005). Security of e-Systems and Computer Networks. University of 7th November at Carthage, Tunisia

Khamal A. (2007). The law of cyber-space. Journal, 10(1), 51-56.

Physical and Cognitive Development

The cognitive development phase during childhood years consists of decision-making, idea learning, remembering, problem -solving, and understanding thoughts derived from past experiences from childhood through adolescence, and into adulthood. When one perceives, gains understanding, and thinks of the interaction from the world around them, factors are learned, and genetic influences comes from cognitive development and or often modeled by a child??™s teachers and parents. A child develops how to interact and understand other people during the childhood years and how to interact with one??™s external environment (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2001). Factors like intelligence, language learning approach, information processing, reasoning, memory, and idea learning and understanding affect cognitive development during childhood years (Blumberg, 2004). Cognitive development has been studied historically by psychologist in children in a variety of ways, and explained in different manners. Many psychologist believe that one??™s surroundings solely represents cognitive development, while others believe one??™s genetic making, or situational circumstances influences cognitive development. To defend their findings and information most psychologists explain the developmental cognitive stage differently.
A person??™s cultural surroundings is something explained as a highly influence on cognitive development. This means that one??™s cultural background; food, beliefs, language, and customs play a big influence on cognitive development. Cognitive development is explained as a cultural process and ???according to cultural practices children develop knowledge and thinking skills??? (Gauvain, 2011). When taking cultural contributions into account, it adds values to understanding cognitive development. While studying a child??™s development, practical and theoretical issues that are researched by culture are encouraged and culture should be considered much more than anything else in a child??™s life. When children are taught the same lesson in school but separated into groups by their culture, even though the same topic is being taught they all have a different level of understanding on that particular topic. This could lead one to believe that each child had different levels of development to begin with, culture has a great influence on cognitive development, and the study approach was unfair from the beginning.
Infants that are given Zinc, Folic Acid, Iron, and supplemental vitamins are influenced by cognitive development. This has nothing to do with cultural surroundings but is based more on physical health and stability. Psychologist explains how supplemental deficiencies can effect cognitive development and can stunt the growth in general in infants. ???The study investigated the effects of iron-folic acid and/or zinc supplementation on the results of and intelligence called the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII)??? (Siegel, 2011). Using five indicators of processing information: deteriorated performance, fixation duration, accelerated performance, and preferences for novelty, infants were tested on both tasks. The results of the tests were inconsistent and showed that there is a greater influence on cognitive development and infants who encounter social stressors have a greater difference. This proves that a child??™s cognitive development relies on their cultural surroundings.
Psychologist explained that nutrition could be another very important profoundly influential element to a child??™s cognitive development. Cognitive development ???focuses on a childs development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of brain development??? (Hunt, 1991). To give a child the proper nutrients for a physically healthy approach to learning they must have a healthy lifestyle. Children??™s nutritional health helps their cognitive development. A study was conducted to assess cognitive development and investigate the relationship of nutrition and the way a child learns (Dutta, 2011). The study showed how the same group of children that used nutrition changed throughout the research and the great affect nutrition has on the cognitive development of a child. The research proved how, unhealthy nutrition can lead to the lack of focus, and affect a child physically where they cannot retain information as if they would if they received the nutrition they should receive.
During the post-natal period of a mother??™s pregnancy, a mother??™s health can promote healthier babies and cognitive development once a child is born. Psychological well-being as well as maternal health during the mother??™s post-natal period of pregnancy contributes to the well-being for the family. A mother who spends most of her pregnancy in turmoil and depression can cause a child to have slower cognitive development. This has a-lot to do with the mother??™s emotional and mental state during the pregnancy. ???Mothers often experience physical and psychological difficulties during the post-natal period and these may continue through the early years of raising children and have negative effects on engagement and care giving??? (Mensah, 2011). The same group of children that were nine months old and three years old were assessed through maternal health and psychological well-being and it was proven that there is a clear association between a cognitive development and maternal general health.
In Conclusion, cognitive development is influenced by not one but several influential factors. A child??™s surroundings and cultural circumstances are very important to the over-all health of a child. A child??™s circumstance does influence the cognitive development of a child. It is very important before believing that a child is not committed, capable, educated enough, or understanding the topic to analyze a child??™s over-all circumstances. Before educating children we must remember that cognitive development is influenced by many factors. Cognitive theory is the development of a person??™s though process and it influence the way people interact with the world. Cognitive theory has to do with people??™s surrounding meaning; in school, at home, and friendships. One cannot ignore the fact that cognitive theory is influenced by one??™s health status because when one is healthy, rested, and well-feed; he or she learns their best. Cognitive development is influenced by many different factors and these are just a few of the many that influence cognitive development.

The Ethical Issue of Women Serving on Submarine??™s

The Ethical Issue of Women Serving on Submarine??™s
Chad Morey
Excelsior University

An ethical issue in the navy is whether or not women should be allowed to serve on submarines. Women serving on submarines present ethical dilemmas due many constraints that accompany serving on submarines. Some ethical dilemmas include different medical complications that could arise for women, fair treatment both for women and men, adequate living space and privacy. The stakeholders impacted from this issue are women in the military, the men currently on submarines, and the submariner??™s significant other.
In the U.S. Navy, women were not given the opportunity to serve on submarines. Many view this as discrimination. According to Trevino and Nelson (2011), ???Discrimination occurs whenever something other than qualifications affects how an employee is treated??? (p. 116). Women have proved in the military that they have the ability to perform at the same high level as men. Specifically, women have been serving on surface fighting warships since 1993. Not allowing women to serve on submarines can be viewed as unfair and unethical. In the military or in a civilian business, as long as the employee meets the qualification and standards they should be given the same opportunity as anyone else. This ethical issue seems cut and dry as being unethical yet, there are underlying ethical dilemmas that congress and admirals of the navy have to look at prior to making a decision.
Certain medical issues could arise for women that have the potential of causing problems. If a female submariner were to get pregnant and was unaware, would the environment of the submarine cause medical problems for herself and the fetus According to the research done by Kane and Horn (2001):
The submarine atmosphere, containing chronically elevated CO2 and other contaminants, and submarine environmental factors such as noise and vibration levels, present currently unknown risks to the fetus. Carbon Dioxide levels in the submarine usually run .5% with normal atmospheric levels of .03%.
While serving in any military branch there are high risks that you are aware of that could cause harm to yourself. Although the risks of serving in the military are inherent to members of the military, managers of the military have to decide, is it ethical for those same risks to be possibly exposed to an unborn fetus.
Another ethical dilemma is treating women and men fairly. Justice is one of the high virtues and important character strength of justice is fairness. Not giving women a fair opportunity to serve on submarines is discrimination. Trevino and Nelson (2011) state ???Discrimination is an ethical issue because it??™s at the core of fairness in the workplace. While concepts of fairness are incorporated in business law around the world, in the United States fairness is considered to be an inalienable right??? (p. 117). It??™s important that the government and military do not discriminate because if they do, they??™re setting a bad example for businesses to follow. Grossman (2000) states:
Integrating the subs would expand the talent pool, potentially easing a shortage of qualified recruits that has persisted despite pay incentives. Its also a question of equal opportunity, the Pentagon panel suggested, allowing “the assignment of the most highly qualified personnel regardless of gender.”
The government leaders also have to think about treating the submariners that are men fairly too. If women are incorporated into submarines and are given special treatment over men, it could cause resentment and a poor work environment.
Next, adequate living space and privacy is a dilemma to be addressed. Working and living on a submarine involves limited space and privacy. The living quarters on a submarine are very small and many times, especially on attack submarines, personnel have to share racks. There are many tight spaces and things such as valves are located in berthing and even in the CO??™s stateroom that have to be manipulated at any given time. There are also a limited number of bathrooms or heads on a submarine.
Aboard fast-attack submarines, two bathrooms – each with four toilets and two urinals – serve 100 crew members. Crew chiefs and officers use another three baths. Designating one bath for a small number of women could disadvantage scores of men, while making them unisex raises other problems (Grossman 2000).
With over 100 personnel assigned to a submarine and very limited space, a sailor is going to have to give up some privacy.
Stakeholder Analysis
In any sound ethical decision one must identify who is affected by the decision and how, also known as the stakeholders. The stakeholders who are affected by the decision of allowing women to serve on submarines are women in the navy, men on submarines, and family members of the submariners. Women in the navy are the obvious one??™s who will be affected by the decision. As a consequentialist, women would benefit from the decision. Women have fought long and hard for equal rights. To allow women to serve on submarines opens up new opportunities for them in the military to advance and to make a positive impact on the submarine force. Looking through the eyes of women in the military, their perception of not allowing them to serve on submarines could be that their not as good as men and can??™t do the job. Therefore, they??™re not given equal opportunity, which is something the military preaches.
Another stakeholder is men who are currently serving on submarines. Humans are creatures of habit and don??™t like change. Incorporating women into submarines is going to change the culture of submarines. Looking through a submariner eyes, one might argue that they have been doing this for 100 years and it would be unfair to change the culture.
???In any case, the all-male fraternity would disintegrate, critics argue. “Just to keep themselves sane … they have discussions and rituals that just couldnt be done around … women they are working with,” says Mrs. Calhoun. “You take these things away from them, then what do you have A monotonous schedule [and] unhappy working conditions.”??? (Grossman 2000).
The last stakeholders to be affected are submariner??™s family, specifically the wives. The wives of submariners have had the comfort of their husbands going out to sea and adultery was not a topic of discussion. Due to hardship and long deployments that submariner??™s go through, it puts a lot of stress on families. Not only are they gone for a long time but the only contact they have with their husbands is via e-mail. Due to the close quarters on subs, wives may feel that temptation of adultery would be greater. Grossman (2000) adds that
Not so fast, say many submariners wives. Their top objection is the prospect that mixed-gender service in such close quarters – and under extreme tensions – may invite promiscuity. Passageways on attack subs are so narrow that sailors have to turn sideways to pass one another, they say.
Even though the wives will be affected by the decision, it won??™t be directly or a great deal.
Recommendations and Conclusion
After gathering the facts, defining the ethical issues and affected parties navy leaders will have to analyze everything to come up with the best ethical decision. Identifying the consequences and obligations are important steps in the process. The consequences of women getting pregnant and being underway range from the service member dying from an ectopic pregnancy due to the lack of medical staff or the service member having to be medivaced from the area. If a women were to be or get pregnant underway and have an ectopic pregnancy or spontaneous abortion, they could require life saving surgery. (Kane & Horn 2001). Submarines operate in many remote areas with no support. The only medical staff on board is a single corpsman. Also, navy leaders have obligations to provide a safe environment for women that are pregnant in the navy. Another consequence of letting women serve on submarines is the fair treatment of men already serving. There is already a limited amount of space that these sailors have to share. Incorporating women could cause the amount of space to decrease because you would have to accommodate for a women??™s privacy. If women are given their own bunks and heads while the number of men have to share less bunks and heads that would be unfair and could decrease morale.
Currently, some enlisted sailors must sleep on the same bunk in shifts, a practice known as “hot racking.” If women get their own berthing area, more sailors may “need to start hot racking again,” says Cheryl Morrissey of Ballston Spa, N.Y. “How is that for morale” (Grossman 2000).
Leaders of the navy have an obligation to keep things fair and not give special treatment to certain groups of people. Fair treatment is very important in any work environment.
Not allowing women to serve on subs creates consequences as well. By not allowing women to serve on subs, the navy leaders are basically saying they can??™t do the same job as men. The navy preaches equal opportunity and each command has a CMEO (command managed equal opportunity) individual to help promote this environment. If the navy doesn??™t allow women the same opportunity they could be seen as hypocrites by society. They have an obligation to give every sailor equal opportunity to succeed.
This is not an easy decision to make for the management of the navy. It??™s hard to change something that??™s been done the same for over 100 years. Yet, even though there are complications and many adjustments to be made women should have an opportunity to serve on submarines. The biggest issues the navy has to deal with are the medical implications of pregnancy and implementing privacy but still giving fair treatment. If women want to serve on a submarine they must sign a page two that states that they will not get pregnant while they are on a sea billet due to the lack of medical personnel onboard and the importance of manning to a submarine. Women should also go through screening to ensure they are not pregnant prior to deployment. To lose one sailor on a submarine can affect operational readiness greater than on a surface boat. In addition, they should add a women corpsman to the each command that has females part of the crew for privacy reasons. Another recommendation is to have an all women crew on a sub. On a trident submarine there are two crews to a boat, which could allow one of the crews to be an all female crew. If there is an all women crew there wouldn??™t be any privacy or fair treatment issues. If say there are only 10 women on a submarine and they get to share a head and have bunks for themselves, it is unfair treatment because the rest of the crew would have to share the other head. Many people cannot empathize with submariners on the issue of women getting their own bunks and head. Moral onboard a sub is very important due to the nature of being underwater with no outside contact except e-mails. Minuet things such as this can have an effect on the crew as a whole.
In conclusion, women should have the opportunity to serve on submarines because of equal opportunity. There are many obstacles that management are going to have to tackle to make it work such as proper training for the men and women, and making adequate modifications to the subs. Fairness should not be an afterthought in process of integrating women in subs. Men and women work in successful businesses in many different industries, there is no reason why they can??™t make it work and be successful under the sea too.
Grossman, E.M. (2000) Is There Room on Submarines For Women Christian Science Monitor; Vol. 92 Issue 46, p3, 0p, 1. Retrieved from:

Kane, J.L., Horn, W.G. (2001) The Medical Implications of Women On Submarines. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory. Retrieved from:

Trevino, L.K., Nelson, K.A. (2011) Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right. (5th ed.) New York: J. Wiley & Sons.


These guidelines are for use in development of a licensed home health agency. (If you desire Medicare certification in addition to state licensure, please refer to the Home Health Medicare Certification and State Licensure Forms and Resources website link.) Home health agencies must meet the licensure requirements specified in Chapter 25, Section 197.400197.475 and 19 CSR 30-26.010. Please review these statutes and regulations before proceeding with this process. If you wish to participate as a state licensed home health agency, submit the following information to: Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services Bureau of Home Care and Rehabilitative Standards P.O. Box 570 Jefferson City, MO 65102 The application will not be processed until all of these items are received: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Letter of Intent for State Licensure and/or Medicare Certification Application for Home Health Agency License $600 licensure fee made payable to the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (non-refundable) State Disclosure of Ownership and Control Interest Statement Agency policy and procedure manual Proof of current registration with the Missouri Secretary of State. If the agency is using a “doing business as” (d/b/a) name, you will need to provide proof of the fictitious filing. For any questions regarding the registration process or fictitious filing, contact the Secretary of State office at 573- 751-4153. All forms received by the Bureau must list the legal entity name and the d/b/a, if applicable.

Missouri statute at 197.445 requires all licensed home health agencies to meet the standards for Medicare certification. In developing your policy and procedure manual refer to the website link for Interpretive Guidelines ??“ Home Health Agencies (State Operations Manual ??“ Appendix B.) Policies and procedures must address all of the standards listed in the Interpretive Guidelines except for those related to the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data collection and submission (484.11, 484.20, 484.55(e)). In addition, you must include policies and procedures regarding: Criminal background checks ??“ refer to website link for Criminal Background 660.317 RSMo and Family Care Safety Registry Alzheimers and dementia specific training ??“ refer to website links for Alzheimers and Dementia Specific Training 660.050 RSMo Advance Directive information- refer to website link for Missouri Law Regarding a Patients Right to Make Health Care Decisions and Advance Directive Information CFR 489.100-489.104 Home Health Aide Competency Evaluation ??“ call the Bureau at (573) 751-6336 to obtain a copy Infection control including Hepatitis B requirements per OSHA ??“ refer to website link for Hepatitis B 29 CFR 1910.1030 (f)(1)(i)(ii),(ii)(A),(2)(iv)

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Possession of drugs by a home health agency ??“ refer to website link Possession of Drugs by a HHA or Hospice 4 CSR 220-2.010 (8) Patient Rights ??“ statement given to patient must be verbatim from federal regulation ??“ refer to website link Patient Rights (484.10). Additional information may be added. Organizational chart Job descriptions for all disciplines Administrator qualifications ??“ send resume with policy manual. The administrator must be (a) a licensed physician; or (b) a registered nurse; or (c) has training and experience in health service administration and at least 1 year of supervisory or administrative experience in home health care or related health programs. Orientation Geographic area to be served by agency ??“ the service area will be limited to the county of the parent agency and any requested bordering counties of the parent agency for the first 6 months following the date of your initial survey. An agency may not request approval to operate a branch office for at least one (1) year after the initial date of certification/licensure. CLIA Certificate of Waiver ??“ required if skilled nursing personnel perform fingerstick blood glucose or prothrombin testing. Contact 573-751-6318 for application. The governing body and group of professional personnel appointed by the home health agency must approve the policy and procedure manual prior to the initial survey. After receipt of the required forms and policy manual a surveyor will be assigned to your agency. The following process will be followed: 1. Surveyor reviews and approves policy manual. If additional information is needed from agency before manual can be approved, surveyor will notify agency. Information needed to complete the manual approval process must be submitted by agency within 30 days of request. If timeframe is not met by agency, the application will be withdrawn. Surveyor approves geographic area. Surveyor approves administrator. Surveyor gives agency permission to develop a patient caseload. The initial caseload for home health agencies seeking state licensure shall be ten (10) patients, with at least seven (7) patients on service at time of survey. During the start-up period, the home health agency shall provide at least two services. If the home health agency has not developed the required caseload within ninety (90) days from the date the agency is given permission to develop a caseload, your application will be withdrawn and your policy manual returned. The licensure fee is non-refundable. 5. 6. 7. The Bureau will send a confirmation letter to the agency regarding permission to start a patient caseload. The home health agency notifies the Bureau when the required caseload has been achieved. Surveyor schedules initial survey (preferably within 3 weeks).

2. 3. 4.

The initial survey is unannounced by state requirements. The exit date of the survey is the earliest that your agency can be licensed as a home health agency. If deficiencies are cited at the time of the survey the earliest date of licensure will be the date that the plan of correction has been approved by the Bureau. You will receive your license by mail within two to three weeks of one of the above dates.

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Those agencies that are denied licensure will be sent notification, indicating the reason for the denial and information about their rights to appeal the decision. If agency fails to complete process within one year of initial application, Bureau will notify agency that application is withdrawn and agency will need to begin the application process again. Additional information regarding licensure and current home health issues is available on our website at All of the website links mentioned are available at the above website by clicking on “Applications and Forms” and then “Home Health State Licensure Forms and Resources.” Please contact the Bureau of Home Care and Rehabilitative Standards at (573) 751-6336 with any questions.

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The Essay

From William H. Seward
???The Irrepressible Conflict??? (1858)

Today we have two radically different systems that exist is our country; the slave owners and the freeman believers. We have one system that is based on slave labor and the other system on voluntary labor. The slave system is not only ignorant, unjust and inhuman towards the people doing the labor but rather weight of bad feeling on the shoulders of all white??™s weather they have slaves or not. Our communities will either flourish or droop based on the justice that they practice on their own humanity. Our free labor system is devoted or in agreement with the law of equality. It educates all the say way, and it opens the doors to opportunities in industrial employment regardless of what class they come from. The two systems we have in place today are not compatible with each other. We cannot be united as a nation and have two different systems or two different definitions of equality. Never have they existed in one country and they never will. With that said and done we have to acknowledge that our population is increasing. We are building roads, highways, and railroads connected us with each other. The daily interactions that happen due to commerce only bring us closer together. It is slowly but surely bring the states closer into a one nation under one voice. You can clearly see that these two systems, slavery and anti-slavery are coming together and therefore they cannot co-exist and eventually they will collide. This collision would mean that the United Stations soon or later will either have to accept itself as a slave holding nation or entirely free-labor nation.

As William Seward mentioned the states are slowly but surely coming closer together. The relationship between states is growing very strong due to commerce. Even the American people are now somewhat divided over slavery they all share the same values and dreams. This document has a very major importance in the history because it is one of the first steps in establishing a Free Labor System in the United States. The idea of a free independent men is growing larger. Not only that slavery is contradiction with religion but it??™s also a political issue. We got the independence on the basis that all men were created equally but not the slaves. We value god??™s word but we want to enslave and hurt other people. So you can clearly see its contradiction and people are starting to realize this. If we??™re all going to be one nation under one voice then we need to set our standards. The nation must choose if they want to endorse the idea of slavery or if they want freedom of labor and equality.

I applaud Mr. Seward??™s effort to point out the collision that??™s about to happen. Some Americans were for a free society and others were for a slave society. The Western states relied heavily on slave labor and freeing of the slaves would devastate their profits. The Northern on the other side believe in the idea of a free labor and all men create equal idea. At the same time you can see that the north and the south were getting closed and relied heavily upon each other. The south needed costumers to buy its products and the north needed the products. However, the idea of a free society and a slave society could not co-exist in the same nation. Therefore, William Seward is correct when he says that these two radical different political systems could not co-exist.

The Escape

The Escape
Brad knew that escaping was next to impossible. For god sakes nobody had ever escaped, but the thought of it lurked in his brain. Every day he watched his prison guard ???Joe??? slowly fall asleep. Just the thought of Joe falling asleep closer to his cell nearly drew him insane. He knew how easily he could get his hands on his revolver, and blow his brains out. Sure the thought was wicked, but if it meant escaping, he would do anything.
Detective Castle arrived at Devil??™s Island, where the most dangerous people are locked away. It was hard for detective Castle to believe that someone escaped from Devil??™s Island. As Castle was walking toward the cell he could smell blood. It was so strong that you would think a hundred people died. Finally he entered the private room where the cell was at. Castle almost stepped in the blood from Joe Barks head. The built hole in Joe??™s head looked like a professional had done it.
Castle got straight to work in searching Brad??™s background. What he found out wasn??™t pretty. Ten years ago Brad had been a cop, and was never home. Lack of attention for his wife ???Diana??? caused her to cheat on him with Fernando ???Brad??™s best friend???. Sadly Brad found them in his house, and shot Fernando right in the heart. Brad couldn??™t kill his wife then, so he made her promise that she would never tell anyone or he would kill her. Diana couldn??™t stand to keep the secret, and live under the same roof as Brad. On a night when Brad was going out drinking, she went to the police protection program, and told them everything.
With this information in his hands, Castle knew who Brad??™s next target was and he had to act fast. As he sped into Brad??™s old drive way, he saw that the door had been busted in and heard the neighborhood dogs barking in excitement. Castle pulled out his gun and slowly entered through the mangled doorway. Cautiously looking over his shoulders and concentrating on any sudden movements, he moved through the house. With one hand stretched out to open the first ajar door, Castle knew what he was about to see; Diana was already dead, and looked as though she had just been stabbed violently in the heart if only a few minutes ago. Suddenly he heard the back door shut. Castle??™s heart began to beat rapidly. He knew that only one of them was going to come out of this situation alive, but didn??™t know who.
Quickly Castle began to sprint for the back door, as he heard an engine kick into life. He had come this close, and was not about to lose him. When he got outside he heard Brad??™s voice; Brad was waiting for Castle. Brad said ???You should??™ve stayed away, and now you??™re going to die.??? Just as Brad was about to shoot Castle; he saw a motel sign right above Brad??™s car. With a quick squeeze on the trigger, Castle shot the sign. A large thud could be heard through the whole neighborhood, as the sign pierced the window through Brad??™s car. Instantly Brad was dead, and justice was served.


The Brain

We??™ve long known that the brain is an amazing thing, but there are intricate details we overlook. The brain is the most complex ???machine??? in the universe. According to William Calvin (1997), ???it has over 100,000,000,000 nerve cells each with up to one hundred and fifty thousand connections; each cell is connected with twenty-five thousand others???. Each half of the brain controls the other half of the body. The right side of the brain controls our musical talent, fantasy, imagination, and dreams; the left side of the brain controls our math solving ability, logic, and language skills (Calvin 1997). Your brain is the supervisor of your body. It runs the show and controls just about everything you do, even when youre asleep.
Serendip (2005) acknowledges that the brain is made up of three main parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. It is found that ???the cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action??? (2005). The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Each lobe has a specific function: the frontal lobe is ???associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving???; the parietal lobe is ???associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli???; the occipital lobe is ???associated with visual processing???; and the temporal lobe is ???associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech??? (Serendip 2005). The cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled; fundamentally this makes the brain more efficient, because it can increase the surface area of the brain and the amount of neurons within it. A deep channel divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. The two hemispheres look mostly symmetrical, however it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. ???The right hemisphere is associated with creativity and the left hemisphere is associated with logic abilities??? (Serendip 2005). The two hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum. The cerebellum, also known as the ???little brain???, is similar to the cerebrum because it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface. This cerebellum is involved in the regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance. The limbic system, referred to as the “emotional brain”, is found buried within the cerebrum. This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. ???Scientists say that this is the ???simplest??™ part of human brain??? (Serendip 2005).
With all of the complexities of the brain many things can go wrong. One common problem is strokes, which occur when the blood supply to the brain is blocked, usually due to plaque and blood clot buildup. Damage to any portion of the brain, through trauma or drug intake, may cause problems relating to the function of that portion of the brain. Damage to the cerebral cortex, for example, may cause memory loss. Brain and spinal cord cells are the only cells in the body which cannot re-grow; once you lose them they dont come back. According to Willis (2002) if the frontal lobe is damaged an individual will suffer ???loss of reasoning ability, caution, and inhibitions.??? Damage to the parietal lobe will cause ???loss of fine motor skills, and slower reaction time??? (Willis 2002). ???Speech and hearing impairment??? will occur if the temporal lobe is harmed (Willis 2002). If the occipital lobe comes within harm??™s way it is quite possible that one will experience blurred vision or poor distance judgments. Since the cerebellum is responsible for coordination, damage to this lobe will create a lack of muscle coordination and balance. Impairment in the brain stem will lead to ???loss of vital functions??? (Willis 2002). Damage to the brain can affect a person??™s behavior, and lead to severe mental conditions.
However, psychologists are able to study the brain through MRI??™s to determine what is wrong with it. A Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ???a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions??? (???Functional mr imaging-brain??? 2009). According to the ???Functional MR Imaging-Brain??? article, a
MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or copied to CD. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new procedure that uses MR imaging to measure the tiny metabolic changes that take place in an active part of the brain.
Physiologists perform fMRI to: observe the anatomy of the brain; determine specifically which division of the brain is handling significant functions such as thinking, dialogue, movement and awareness; help evaluate the effects of stroke, trauma or degenerative disease brain function; guide the planning of surgical treatments for the brain.
In reference to ???Methods Used to Study the Brain,??? (2008) ???psychologists use an EEG to help them learn more about the brain.??? In an EEG, electrodes are pasted on different sites on the scalp and electrical activity is measure during various activities. The brain waves are then attracted by the electrodes, travel to the recording device and then amplified so that they can be more easily seen and examined. A drawback of this method is that the electrodes are large and they sample electrical activity from fairly large areas of the brain. It is only a weak method of studying functional localization in the brain. The EEG recording can be used to examine a variety of brain functions including the different stages of sleep and different psychological disorders (???Methods used to study the brain??? 2008).
According to Calvin (1997), ???the human brain is a complex organ that allows us to think, move, feel, see, hear, taste, and smell. It controls our body, receives information, analyzes information, and stores information (our memories).??? Psychology seeks to understand mind and behavior, and neurology is ???the medical discipline that diagnoses and treats pathologies of the nervous system??? (Calvin 1997). The brain is the most important organ studied in psychiatry, which works to study, prevent and treat mental disorders. Regardless of rapid scientific advancement, much about how the brains work remains a mystery. The procedures of individual neurons and synapse are currently understood in substantial detail, however the way they operate in groups of thousands or millions has been extremely complicated to interpret. Each major progress in understanding the brain has been created more or less directly from the expansion of an innovative method of investigation.


Calvin, W. (1997). How Brains think evolving intelligence, then and now (science masters series). New York City: Basic Books.

Chudler, . (2007). Neuroscience for kids-imaging. Retrieved from
Functional mr imaging-brain. (2009, June 20). Retrieved from
Methods used to study the brain. (2008). Retrieved from
Serendip, . (2005, June 03). Brain structures and their functions. Retrieved from

Willis, B. (2002). The Brain…. Retrieved from