The Era of the Common Man

The Era of the Common Man
The Jacksonian period from 1824 to 1848 began a new era of change and growth, which is celebrated as the era of the ???common man.??? For the first time in American history, a man born in the west, considered part of the common people, was elected president. Andrew Jackson??™s election showed that politics didn??™t have to be about where someone came from, but rather focus on the greater good of the commoners of the United States. Jackson represented a usual citizen; therefore, his presidency is known as the era of the ???common man.??? This title is reflected in the political parties, economic developments, and the domestic issues of the Jacksonian period, all of which were greatly affected during this time period.
During this time, the political parties changed in favor of the common people. New political parties began to emerge and they had to begin to appeal to the people. Because of this, the candidate for presidency was often portrayed as a ???rough-hewn frontiersman and a stalwart champion of the common man??? (275). The controversial election of 1824 between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson involved the ???corrupt bargain??? between John Q. Adams and Henry Clay and thus was a catalyst for the change in political parties. The ???corrupt bargain??? was a name given to the way Henry Clay helped get Adams elected and then Adams made Clay the Secretary of State. Ironically, though Jackson violently slandered Adams for his use of the ???corrupt bargain,??? the spoils system became popular during Jackson??™s presidency. Although portrayed as a negative in most situations, ???the spoils system was an important element of the emerging two-party order, cementing as it did loyalty to [a particular party]??? (280). It was actually important because those that supported Jackson were given political positions. Considering he was a commoner himself, this means that a lot of his followers were given political positions. Though corrupt, he opened the door for more people. Many saw Jackson??™s presidency as tyrannical; therefore, the anti-Jacksonians joined Henry Clay in a new political party ??“ the Whigs. Unlike Jackson, the Whigs favored a renewed national bank, a protective tariff, and internal reforms. Supporters of Jackson became known as the Democrats, who clung to state and individual rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs. The birth of the Whig party and the development of the Democrat party opened a broader world for the common man, and gave him the opportunity to stand up and speak about issues and problems. In the beginning of the new government, democracy was looked upon as wrong and unrespectable; however, as the tide of power began to shift from aristocracy to the common man, democracy became more important. As the land requirements for voting were taken away, more of the ???common men??? were able to vote and were able to take an active role in helping their government.
While the American political party system was evolving, the economy was faced with hardships. The issues that affected most Americans were those of the Bank of the United States and the country??™s economic depression. When the charter of the bank was ready to expire, Henry Clay proposed re-chartering the bank in his American System to provide economical stability. Jackson vetoed the bill because he believed that the bank was unconstitutional and favored the wealthy. Before the charter of the Bank expired in 1836, Jackson removed all federal funds from the Bank of the United States, even though the Constitution did not give the president the power to do this. This crippled the remaining power of the dying bank. Although the money-interested East did not agree with his decision, ???[it] made perfect sense to the common people??? (288). The common people realized that the bank only helped a select few of the wealthier class. However, Jackson failed to see that the Bank of the United States was ???a source of credit and stability??? that was an ???important and useful part of the nation??™s growing economy??? (286.) Nicholas Biddle reacted to this by calling in his bank loans and causing a mini financial panic because the pet and wildcat banks where the federal money was moved to were very unreliable. Jackson moved the federal funds to these pet banks so that they will begin to flourish. Common men, not wealthy landowners who had controlled the banks prior to Jackson, ran these pet banks, and Jackson wanted to give the common men the opportunity to prosper. However, the sectionalism intensified and these hardships helped the economy develop.
While the government of the United States had faced domestic issues before, the problems during the Jacksonian period were mainly based on the fading nationalism and threats of secession. The conflicts and controversial protective tariffs brought the fading nationalism to the surface. In South Carolina, the Tariff of 1828, there referred to as the Tariff of Abominations, caused an angry outburst of protest. After the War of 1812, Britain was dumping its goods on America for cheap prices and the North industry was growing weak. Jackson had proposed the tariff to protect the United States industry, mainly the North. However, the southern common man was very dependent on the system of imports and exports. Without the export of all the goods they grew, the South grew weak as the North prospered with the tariff. The South Carolina Exposition, written by John Calhoun, current vice president of the time, declared that the states should nullify the tariff, which led to a threat of secession from South Carolina. The secession was easily put down, but South Carolina??™s threat showed the lack of nationalism. Tariff hurt the southern commoner, while northern commoners in industries began to benefit. These became a further dividing line for future tensions. Despite Jackson??™s attempt to protect the nation, the tariff divided the United States into the North and South and the domestic issues divided the nation.
The common man was mostly forgotten in society prior to Andrew Jackson??™s election. The Jacksonian period symbolized a shift in America from the wealthy aristocrats to the common man. Andrew Jackson did not fit the mold of the previous presidents: educated, wealthy, and born from a strong family, such as the Adams and Jeffersons. Jackson was an orphan who was only able to rise to power by pure hard work. He represented hope for the common people of a better life. Known as the era of the ???common man,??? the Jacksonian period from 1824 to 1848 caused big changes in the political parties, economic development, and domestic issues and set the stage for more revolution, such as the Civil War.

Physcal. Emotional. Intellectual Child Development

age physical Language/communication intellectual social emotional Spiritual
0 ??“ 1 year *grasp an object that has touched the palm of their hand
*lifting and holding head up for few seconds
*interest in playing with fingers
*turn their head to look for a nipple or teat if their cheek is touched
suck and swallow
*startle in response to a sudden sound or bright light
stretch their arms suddenly and then bring them in if they feel they
are falling
*try to make stepping
movements if they are
held upright with their feet on a firm surface
*exploring toys and objects in the mouth and with fingers
*sitting with support
*crawling or rolling
*sitting up without any support
*standing up and holding unto furniture
*picking and handling small objects *Cries to communicate needs
*looking around and reacting to sounds
*coos when content
*pointing at objects
*tuneful babble sounds like talking *recognise their mother??™s voice and smell
*excitement when it is time to be fed
*notices objects around them
*shows curiosity to see what is happening around them
*enjoys simple repeated games such as pat-a-cake *Begins to develop bond with parents, siblings, carers and familiar faces
*smiles back at a smiling face
*waving bye- bye *cry when they are hungry, in pain, need feeding, changing or just
cuddling
1 ??“ 3 years

*move around, either by
crawling or shuffling
*walking up and down the stairs with the help of an adult
*eagerness for independence, to feed self with hand or spoon
*enjoys running and climbing and even encourage adults chase after them
*turns pages of books
*pedalling tricycle
*toilet training starts and gradually some children can express when they toilet
*enjoys sand and water play
*able to walk up stairs using alternate feet
*tell the difference between boys and girls
* build a bridge with bricks
*undo buttons and thread beads *less babbling and more recognizable words
*starts to cry when they want something and don??™t get it
*points and names familiar objects *enjoys doing things by themselves, enjoys exploring and picking up things by themselves
*enjoys dressing up and playing with small toys
*understand the world around them
*enjoy books *interest in other children
*keen to show adults things
*playing along with other children and coping their actions
*keen to help adults *sings of temper and frustration
*distress if not with people they know well
*have fewer temper tantrums (that started when she was about 18
months) *restless and most times un-cooperative
*enjoy copying and helping adults.
*sometimes enjoying simple games of giving and taking.
3??“ 5 years
*children riding on tricycles, climbing and enjoying simple ball games
*skilful use of the hands to do activities such as threading, pouring and using scissors
*ability to kick and control a ball
*holds pencil properly and can make meaningful drawing, writing or painting
*unfamiliar adult can understand their speech
*can recite numbers, alphabets and count objects
*able to have conversation
*have favourite rhythms and songs
*has vivid imagination *enjoys talking and asking lots of questions
*begins to show understanding of past and present
*uses humour
*concentration when an activity has caught their interest *co-operative play between children along with odd squabble arguments
*shows fear of dark and abandonment
*begins to enjoy jokes, silly games and showing off
*able to separate from parents easily
*can now wait for needs to be fulfilled *beginning to be aware of do??™s and don??™t and may struggle with the do??™s with much mistakes
*shows ability to bargain but not reason

Age Bracket physical Language/communication Intellectual Social Emotional Spiritual
5 ??“ 8 years
*more legible hand writing and increased fine manipulative movements
*can dress and undress themselves
*ability to kick and control a ball
* Enjoys hopping, bike riding, roller blading and skating
* Balances on a wall or beam
* Has finer manipulation of building bricks, jigsaws, etc
* Can sew simple stitches
* Ties and unties laces
* Controls pencil in a small area and does detailed drawing *enjoyment of jokes
*can relate events which occurred in the past
*reads with considerable ease and now writes simple compositions
*controls pitch and volume of voice which are generally well and appropriately established
*can carry on conversation at rather adult level
*well developed time and number concepts

*gain confidence and coordination
*beginning to decode familiar words
*keen to understand and use rules
* Ability to write developing, is able to write some words and copy others
Reads simple books
Increasing sophistication in drawing and painting
Knows birthday
Sight reads ten or more words
Can predict next events
Can count up to 100
Knows half and whole *establishes friendship and preferences
* Becomes engrossed in activities
* Concerned about being disliked
* Good sense of self awareness developed
* Able to form firm friendships
* Very supportive of each other, playing complex games
* Plays in separate sex groups
*shows anger, delight, cheerfulness
*Develops fears of ghosts, things under the bed

* Fairly independent and confident
Increasing sense of morality (right and wrong
Age Bracket Physical Communication & Language intellectual Social emotional Spiritual
8 ??“ 11 years
* Improves physical skills that have already developed
* Puberty starts around 10 for girls with a growth spurt and increase in body strength * Speech is fluent and correct, using descriptive language
* Gives full name, age, birthday and address
* Enjoys jokes, singing, rhymes, etc.
* Rapidly expanding vocabulary
* Recognises new words and asks the meaning of them
* Will accurately copy accents heard
* Able to understand concept of conservation , for example the amount of play dough
remains the same if you make a ball of dough into a long, thin snake
* Developing the ability to think about several things at once
* Enjoys games and rules
Understands the use of symbols in maths, writing, etc.
* Great curiosity in relation to workings of his or her environment
* Can reason and apply logic to problems
* Can transfer information from one situation and use in another
Becoming more creative in play
* Reading and writing confidently
Increasing preferences for subjects * Friendships become very important ??“ mostly same sex
Concern at thoughts of others about them
* Often unsure about changes in settings
* starts to become conscious about appearance * Some starts to become aware of the opposite sex and may find them attractive.
* displays signs of empathy
* begins to see things from another child??™s point of view
* may still require help to express feelings in appropriate way * Increased sense of morality (right and wrong
* joins clubs lead by peers
* wants to be accepted by peers
Age Bracket Physical Communication/Language Intellectual Social Emotional Spiritual
11- 19 years
* Brains developing with increase in reaction times and
co-ordination
* For girls puberty is complete at about 14 and periods start
For boys puberty is 13??“16 and they will be stronger than girls * Most children are fluent speakers, readers and writers of their language
* Increasing use of peer influenced, coded language * Can reason and apply logic to problems
* Can transfer information from one situation and use in another
* Becoming more creative in reading and writing *confidently
Increasing preferences for subjects years *Developing ability to think abstractly
*Will question sources of information
*Becoming more globally aware
* Clear preferences for arts or sciences
Choices relating to future education and careers being thought about *Body changes can upset self esteem
*Need to resolve changes into adulthood
* Some are more assured about changes in settings
* Wants to spend more time with friends than family
* Peer pressure a significant influence * may show feelings about breaking away from parents
*troubled youth may act out to express emotional pains (drug use, skip schools or fights) *experience high and low of hormonal changes
*avoids regular family activities
*increased demands for privacy and argumentativeness

The Equal Rights Amendment

Essay #2
The Equal Rights Amendment- Needed or not!
English 162
Mike Bohnert
October 14, 2012

Should women be given equal rights in this world Yes, there is now reason why in this day and age things should not be equal. If racism is now unacceptable than why is sex discrimination ok All the laws should equally apply to all men and women. Is it only for women that the ERA (equal rights amendment) is for anymore That is what Phyllis Schlafly discusses in her essay on not needing the ERA. In todays society things are changing and we want to argue that if things are changed for women it will be wrong in the end. To argue that things would change drastically for women is just wrong. We live in a world that is headed towards same sex marriages, and women making more money then men at some points. Men just as much as women should expect to collect Social Security if something should happen to their significant other. It should apply to both the man and woman in a relationship. This essay will discuss the difference in why we need the Equal Rights Amendment or not.
In the article that I read by Phyllis Schlafly she argues that the ERA (equal rights amendment) is not needed. She did not want anyone to take away the gender specific privileges that were enjoyed by women. ???The principal reason ERA failed is that although it was marketed as a benefit to women, its advocates were never able to prove it would provide any benefit whatsoever to women.??? (513, Current Issues) Do we need special benefits because of our sex If we asked this question in a different decade the answer would be yes. Just because of our sex is why we should receive benefits! This is how things used to be, when a women needed to depend on a man. Women receive Social Security if something happens to their spouse, women are considered ???dependent women??? (514, Current Issues). ???If all laws are made sex-neutral, the military draft-registration law would have to include women.??? (514, Current Issues) Which may be difficult at times when they are needed at home or they are pregnant. There are some great arguments that are brought up in this essay. It is just not something that goes with how our society and world is changing.
Our society today is so much different then it used to be. We already have women joining the military. It would not be wrong to treat men and women as equals with this. I think that in todays society things are changing and we want to argue that if things are changed for women that so much would be lost. Things would not have to change that drastically for women. We live in a world that is headed towards same sex marriages, and women making more money than men at some jobs. We have over come to many obstacles in this world for women not to have equal rights. There is no reason in this day and age we should not have equality.
2

Sex discrimination is a problem in our country. It is the same as being racist or against a certain religion. It affects people socially as well as economically. In the article by Idella Moore there is a sentence that says a lot. ???But unlike racism and religious intolerance ??“ whose practice against certain groups is localized within countries or regions ??“ sex discrimination is universal.??? (511,Current Issues) Which is a great point. Sex discrimination goes on everywhere yet people do not want to admit it. Yes there may be laws that protect women, they are not always followed. It is against the law to discriminate against religion and race, but what about sex discrimination Do we ever hear of anyone being punished for this We want to punish people for being racist, but not for sex discrimination. This all goes along with the ERA. To me it seems that the Equal Rights Amendment should not just be for women. It is now something that has gone past being about womens rights. ???I see the Equal Rights Amendment, too, as a pledge that we recognize that sexism exists and that we as a country are determined to continue perfecting our democracy by proudly and unequivocally guaranteeing that ones gender will no longer be a detriment to achieving the American dream.??? (512, Current Issues) Something that everyone has always hoped for and many have come to our country to achieve, the American dream. This has gone on for decades of people coming to America and staying.
The ERA dates back to 1923, the first time it was introduced to congress. The ERA was passed out to congress in 1972. There were not enough states that would ratify the ERA, by a certain deadline. Only 35 states out of 38 would ratify. To this day the Equal Rights Amendment is still trying to make its way to the Constitution.
I believe that adding the Equal Rights Amendment would be a good thing for this country. It may need to be changed to be equal across the board, not just for women. I think that both women and men need to have equal rights no matter what. We are in a different generation now. Things and times are changing. We all need to understand that no matter what sex, religion or race, we should all be equal. The question, is the ERA needed or not Should easily be answered. Yes it is needed.

3

Works Cited

Moore, Idella. Schlafly, Phyllis. ???The Equal Rights Amendment: Is it still needed.??? Current Issues and Enduring Questions. Sylvan Barnet, Hugo Bedau., Bedford/St. Martins, 2011. Pages Print

“Equal Rights Amendment Home Page.” Equal Rights Amendment Home Page. Alice Paul Institute, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2012. .

Phylogenetic Analysis

With Phylogenetic analysis, one compares similarities between certain organisms, throughout their evolution. Through careful assessment of osteometric and molecular sequencing data, scientists have discovered remarkable insight into the evolutionary progression of humans. The exercises this week were very informative as to the method scientists use to study this information. Examining skulls and evolutionary data, helped to acquire a larger understanding of what scientists have been studying for a long time.
The skulls we examined had an astonishing array of characteristics and similarities. However, I found the most incredible for me, was the differences. Seeing the dissimilarity between an Australopithecine skull and a Homo skull was shocking. Human evolution has truly come so far throughout the ages; it is hard to even believe this has happened. Only in the broken down exercises, could I in fact, begin to understand how this amazing process has taken place.
Seeing the most primitive Australopithecine skulls compared to a Modern Homo Sapiens skull, you can see minute similarity in the characteristics. They are much more general, none too detailed or none that you can really see the exact development of the change. When examining the middle stages of the skulls, I was able to see the sequence of the evolutionary process a little bit easier.
When comparing the Australopithecine skulls with the Early Homo and Homo Erectus Skulls, there are some impressive changes that had taken place. The most obvious changes that I noticed were the brow ridges and the foreheads. Through more careful examining, I began to see the differences in the endocranial volume, changes in teeth shapes and sizes, and overall face shape. The changes are small, yet I defiantly can distinguish the first step (that we know of) of the evolutionary process taking place. The next observations I made were the changes between the Homo Erectus Skulls and the Neanderthals Skulls. The brow ridges were the most noticeable change I observed in this stage, but I also see the very distinct changes throughout the face, cranial shape and size, the chin seems like it would be positioned very differently as well.
And last but not least, the change to Homo Sapiens as I recognize them today. The smaller face shape, the brow ridges are very small in comparison, teeth are smaller, and the overall cranium is arched higher and rounded around the back.
What an incredible look at evolutionary progression. I feel that I have encompassed a much larger understanding of not only the incredible scientific process that goes into Biological Phylogenetics, and the comparative analysis that is such, but I feel that I know a great deal further about the evolutionary process as scientists have studied it.

Photosynthesis

Experiment 2. Testing a leaf for starch

(a) Half fill a 250 cm3 beaker or tin can with water (hot water if available) and place it on a tripod over a Bunsen burner. Heat the water till it boils and then turn down the Bunsen flame sufficiently to keep the water at boiling point.

(b) Hold the leaf in forceps and plunge it into the boiling water for 5 seconds. This will kill the cells, arrest all chemical reactions and make the leaf permeable to alcohol and iodine solution later on.

(c) With the forceps, push the leaf carefully to the bottom of a test-tube and cover it with methylated spirit.

(d) TURN OUT THE BUNSEN BURNER.

(e) Place the test-tube in the hot water and leave it for 5 minutes. The alcohol will boil and dissolve out the chlorophyll in the leaf (See Figure on p.2.02).

(f) Use a test-tube holder to remove the test-tube from the water bath and tip the green alcoholic solution into the receptacle for waste alcohol but take care not to tip the leaf out as well.
If the leaf is white or very pale green, go on to (g).
If there is still a good deal of chlorophyll left in the leaf, boil it for a further 5 minutes with a fresh supply of alcohol, using the hot water bath. If it is necessary to relight the Bunsen to heat the water to boiling point, remove the test-tube and do not replace it until the Bunsen flame is extinguished.

(g) Fill the test-tube with cold water and the leaf will probably float to the top.
I. Tough leaves (e.g. Tradescantia). Hold the leaf stalk with forceps and dip it into the
hot water in the water bath for 2-3 seconds. Spread it flat on a tile or Petri dish lid with
the aid of a little cold water.
2. Soft leaves (e.g. Busy Lizzie). Use forceps to place the leaf on a tile or back of a
Petri dish lid and, holding the leaf stalk firmly against the tile or lid, let a fine trickle of
water from the cold tap run over it to wash away the alcohol.

(h) If necessary, use the forceps to spread the leaf quite flat on the tile or lid. Using a dropping pipette cover the leaf with iodine solution for one minute.

(i) Take the leaf to the sink and holding it on the tile or lid, wash away the iodine solution with a fine trickle of cold water .

The Epidemic of Hiv and Aids

The Epidemic of HIV and AIDS
In the early 1980??™s the United States was hit with a strange outbreak of killer pneumonia that was infecting young and healthy homosexual men. The disease was one that no one had ever seen prior because it was showing signs and symptoms of Kaposi??™s Sarcoma (KS) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) but the treatment for these diseases were not working on the patients that were coming in and they would die soon after from this rare illness.
It was first diagnosed in the United States, in New York and at the same time in California (www.Avert.org 1981 second paragraph). The number of gay men getting ill was growing rapidly every day. As the year went on the public was starting to worry about their own health. In 1981 drug users and patients receiving blood from the blood banks were being diagnosed with this rare disease that they were calling GRID (gay, related, immune deficiency). It wasn??™t until June 1982 that they officially started calling it AIDS (www.Avert.org 1982 fifth paragraph).
From the moment the epidemic started the Center of Disease Control (CDC) was trying to figure out what the disease was and how was it spread from one person to the next. It took them a long time to find out the source because they couldn??™t understand since it originated with homosexual men having the disease, to patients who were receiving blood in the hospitals, and newborn babies dyeing from the illness that they had gotten from their mothers at birth. In 1982 they found out that this illness was transmitted through bodily fluids (sexual contact, blood, and breast milk) (www.aids.gov).
Since the epidemic began there have been 1,129,127 cases of adults who have been diagnosed with AIDS. There have been 619,400 deaths from the disease of that number 300,000 were men who have had sex with other men, 175,000 were IV drug users, 250,000 were blacks, and 95,000 were Latino and Hispanics. Approximately 50,000 Americans will become infected with HIV each year(www.cdc.gov). There still is no cure for the disease as of today but there is always hope for tomorrow.

Photosynthesis

Topic ??“ Describe the importance of photosynthesis to life on earth.

The formula for all life on earth is 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + photons > C6H12O6 + 6 O2. Without this formula, life as we know it, would not exist. Simply, six carbon dioxides plus six waters plus sunlight gives off a simple sugar plus six oxygen molecules. Photosynthesis is the very basic building block for the earths food supply. Without this simple chemical reaction you, me and everything we know would cease to exist. Let us explore the world of photosynthesis.

Here is how it works. Carbon Dioxide, a naturally occurring gas in the air is drawn into the leaves of green plants. Once in the leaf, it is mixed with water and then when exposed to light, through a process which is still not completely understood, the carbon dioxide and water are transformed through a chemical process. The result of this chemical reaction is a simple carbohydrate (Simple sugar) and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere. As a mammal, we humans breath the oxygen and eat the sugar, or something which ate the sugar. In nature, the mammals which eat the plants or sugars die and then return to the earth and complete the circle in this cycle.

This process is the very basic building block of our food supply as plants are the primary source of photosynthesis. Plants and plant products, which include fruits, tubers, seeds and other sugar storage devices become food for animals and humans. Humans also consume animal proteins which were built from the sugars of plants which the animal consumed before. If something were to happen to disrupt the photosynthesis cycle, life on earth would be in severe peril. Earth only has about a 90 day supply of food available at any one time. This is primarily food which is in the process of being converted to a form humans can use or already processed and in storage. Ninety days between a living planet and one with no life.

Scientists believe when the earth began there was very little oxygen in the atmosphere. Over millions of years, through the photosynthesis process, the amount of oxygen has increased and today is between 20 and 21 percent. It is this oxygen which we breath as part of our respiration process. Respiration is sometimes considered the opposite of photosynthesis because oxygen is taken in, combined with water and then we release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere and water from our bodies. Every creature we know in High School science that breaths oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide owes its life to those which survive from photosynthesis. As the song says, it is just a circle of life.

As I have explained 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + photons > C6H12O6 + 6 O2 is the foundation for life on earth. Without this formula we would not exist. Because of this formula carbon dioxide and water are converted to a sugar and oxygen. This sugar is then consumed by humans and animals alike. Without this simple chemical reaction, you, me and everything we know would cease to exist. Life on earth is truly a delicate balance.

The Environmental Analysis (Swot Analysis)

The Environmental Analysis (SWOT analysis)
SWOT is a planning tool that identifies the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats of an organization. It is created by Albert Humphrey, an American business and management consultant who specialized in organizational management and cultural change.? Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model and technique that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats. A SWOT analysis guides to identify the positives and negatives inside the organization and outside of it, in the external environment. The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results.
Strengths describe the positive attributes, tangible and intangible, internal to the organization. They are within your control. It has to be considered form both an internal perspective, either from the view of the customers and people in your market. Strengths capture the positive aspects internal to your business that add value or offer you a competitive advantage. This is your opportunity to remind yourself of the value existing within your business. Strengths can be evaluated by area, such as marketing, finance, manufacturing and organizational structure. Strengths include the positive attributes of the people involved in the business, including their knowledge, backgrounds, education, credentials, contacts, reputations, or the skills they bring. Strengths also include tangible assets such as available capital, equipment, credit, established customers, existing channels of distribution, copyrighted materials, patents, information and processing systems, and other valuable resources within the business.
Weaknesses are factors that are within your control that detract from your ability to obtain or maintain a competitive edge. It might include lack of expertise, limited resources, lack of access to skills or technology, inferior service offerings, or the poor location of your business. These are factors that are under your control, but for a variety of reasons, are in need of improvement to effectively accomplish your marketing objectives. Weaknesses capture the negative aspects internal to your business that detract from the value you offer, or place you at a competitive disadvantage. These are areas you need to enhance in order to compete with your best competitor. The more accurately you identify your weaknesses, the more valuable the SWOT will be for your assessment.
Opportunities assess the external attractive factors that represent the reason for your business to exist and prosper which are external to your business. These opportunities reflect the potential you can realize through implementing your marketing strategies. Opportunities may be the result of market growth, lifestyle changes, resolution of problems associated with current situations, positive market perceptions about your business, or the ability to offer greater value that will create a demand for your services. However if you have identified ???opportunities??? that are internal to the organization and within your control, you will want to classify them as strengths.
Threats are potential threats to a business. Threats include factors beyond your control that could place your marketing strategy, or the business itself, at risk. These are also external ??“ you have no control over them, but you may benefit by having contingency plans to address them if they should occur. A threat is a challenge created by an unfavorable trend or development that may lead to deteriorating revenues or profits. Competition ??“ existing or potential ??“ is always a threat. Other threats may include intolerable price increases by suppliers, governmental regulation, economic downturns, devastating media or press coverage, a shift in consumer behavior that reduces your sales, or the introduction of a ???leap-frog??? technology that may make your products, equipment, or services obsolete.? It may be valuable to classify your threats according to their ???seriousness??? and ???probability of occurrence.???

Reduce Inequality

Reduce Inequality Paul Krugmanessay?Paul Krugman


The US has always been relatively unequal. In this article of Confronting Inequality, Paul Krugman lays out some steps and policies to slow down the rising inequality in the US. For inequality does extreme harm to our life standard, society and democracy, it is important to find our the source in which the income inequality matters first and take measures such as implementing new tax policies, raising minimum wage, improve universal health care, etc.

Photoreceptors

Photoreceptors

Abstract
We will discuss in this essay the workings of the Photoreceptors and how they determine vision, the perception of light. Also we will briefly discuss how photoreceptors work in other animals and how they work, if at all, in humans without sight.

Photoreceptors 1

The peripheral nervous system is described as all parts of the nervous system

except the brain and spinal cord, which is considered the part of the central nervous

system. The peripheral nervous system, or the PNS, connects the central nervous

system (CNS) to the remainder of the body, and is the conduit through which neural

signals are transmitted to and from the CNS. (Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological

Disorders, Hoyle and Arthur, 2005).

These neurons are broken down into three categories, sensory, motor and

associated neurons. Motor neurons control the muscles and glands, the sensory neurons

are associated with the eyes, ears and skin, while the associated neurons connect the two.

(The Living World, Johnson and Lobos, 2010) We will concentrate on a particular part of

the PNS, the sensory receptors, and in this case, the photoreceptors. Photoreceptors

respond to light, which is what vision is, the perception of light. Eyes contain sensory

receptors called rods and cones that respond to photons of light. The light energy is

absorbed by the pigments in the rods and cones, which respond by triggering nerve

impulses in sensory neurons, sending it to the CNS, particularly the brain.

After sending these signals from the photoreceptors through the retina (the

eyeballs, the locations of the rods and cones) to the cerebral cortex, the brain interprets

this information and provides the images of what we are seeing. The key difference

between humans and certain animals is the different types of vision we have. Humans and
Photoreceptors 2

primates function with binocular vision, which gives them ability to determine depth

perception. But the advantage that animals have with eyes on the side of their head is of a

wider field of vision.(The Living World, Johnson and Lobos, 2010)

Some people are born completely blind??”lacking the eye??™s photoreceptors

known as rods and cones. But how about partially blind or people with bad vision

(interesting subject because without glasses I cannot see three feet in front of me!) The

number one reason for blindness is cataracts, according to the WHO website

(www.WHO.int, 2010). Other causes are macular degeneration and diabetes. Cataracts

are the clouding of the crystalline lens. Cataracts block light from entering the retina, not

allowing the rods, cones and photoreceptors to send impulses to the brain.

Macular degeneration, Diabetes and retinitis pigmentosa (or tunnel vision) are

conditions that do involve the dying of photoreceptors, and to this point not much hope

has been given to patients who slowly lose their vision.(www.why files.org, 2010) But

hope is on the horizon in the form of stem cell research and in particular neuron stem

cells. Dr Michael Young of the Schepens Eye Research Center at the University of

Harvard have made progress in rats by injecting neuron stem cells into a blind rats retina.

The cells populated in the retina and became normal looking, as well as the nerve cells.

(www.schepenes.Harvard.edu , 2010) Current research has moved on to pigs, and in the

future maybe humans.

References

Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders, Hoyle and Arthur, 2005

The Living World, Johnson and Lobos, 2010

www.schepens.harvard.edu 2010

www.whyfiles.org 2010

www.WHO.int 2010