Social Work pratcice with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People

Our society has no concrete knowlege of the truths surrounding societal myths and taboos concerning homosexuality. Twenty years ago,the topic has been rarely discussed and often avoided, with no reasearch exsisting. Even today, a selective amount of attention in the study of gay,lesbian, and bisexual population.
The social work concept that relates to this the gay,lesbian, and bisexual population is social justice. Gay, lesbian and bisexual individulas face a issues with discrimination constantly. Social justice applies to them becuase we as social workers need to seek equality of oppurtunity, resourses and meaningful participation in decision making, just as straight individuals get the right to. When working with a gay, lesbian or bisexual client, social workers should be aware of the societal mytha and taboos surrounding homosexuality. The topic has been limited by moral and social doctrines. Social workers need to have knowlege on the history of sterotypes and oppression this population faces. I have witnessed pleanty of discriminatiom and sterotypical limitaions put on gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals. A relative of mine is a homosexual, and i have seen how people glare at him or make dergatory remarks about him. Even his own siblings are gulity of rejecting him, being hostle toward him at family events, or in front of his peers and friends. Also, i have noticed that people have the tendency to be more leanant towards homosexuals that do not dress like females, opposed to ones who do.
There are great strengths with in this group that social workers may want to focus on in treatment. the gay, lesbian and bisexual population has been existing longer than people may want to acknowledge, which means that they have been dealing with being rejected from society for sometime now. This is a strength we as social workers ay want to focus on becuase they are a strong set of people. Reguardless of being accepted, they continue to live life and be who they are, no matter how society chooses to veiw them. Professional lesbian, gay or bisexual individuals have to work three times as hard than their straight colege, just to be seen equally in the work place. If a gay, lesbian or bisexual person chooses to expose thier sexual prefrence in teh workplace, they are being put at risk to social or professional isolation, mild harrasment, or especially close scrunity of their proformance on the job. A person that has to endure these restrictions daily has strength that we as social workers should focus on in treatment.
I believe that their or not any obstacles i could encounter while working with this population becuase if i do all the nesscary reasearch needed to understand the gay, lesbian and gay population, having a client like this will not be a probem.

The Five Stage Model

???Identify and discuss the differences between the five stage model of team development and the punctuated equilibrium model.

The five stage model:
Stage 1- In the Forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Group members rely on safe, patterned behavior and look to the group leader for guidance and direction.
Stage 2-The next stage, called Storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personal-relations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension. As the group members attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably results in their personal relations.
Stage 3-In the Norming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Group members are engaged in active acknowledgment of all members??™ contributions, community building and maintenance, and solving of group issues. Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively ask questions of one another.

Stage 4-The Performing stage is not reached by all groups. If group members are able to evolve to stage four, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In this stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equal facility. Their roles and authorities dynamically adjust to the changing needs of the group and individuals.

Stage 5-The final stage, Adjourning, involves the termination of task behaviors and disengagement from relationships. A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes.

The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members awareness of time and deadlines.

???Discuss the elements of an effective project vision. Why are they important
There are four key elements to an effective vision. First, the vision must make strategic sense. Second, one must be able to communicate it to others. Third, the project leader must have a personal passion to achieve it. Finally, the vision should inspire others to give optimal effort. The vision must make strategic sense; otherwise others will not see it as appropriate or realistic. One must be able to communicate the vision to others so that they understand it and choose to pursue it. The project manager must have a passion to achieve the vision so that it is seen as being credible and has the full support of the project manager. Finally, visions motivate superior performance and therefore must be a source of inspiration to others.

Piggys Mask

Period: 3rd
The character illustrated on the mask is Piggy. The images or symbols that represent him is his glasses snake, asthma inhaler, peacocks feather, buildings, chess rook, bishops mitre, and candy. For this mask I also used clay and bright colors, such as yellow that also symbolizes Piggy in some kind of way.
The first symbol I chose was Piggys glasses, which is one of the most important symbols in this novel. They represent clear – sightedness, insight, intelligence, and the status of social order. They are useful for lighting a fire. Piggy??™s glasses can also be seen as the window that views and identifies good from evil. This understanding comes from the fact that Piggy uses his glasses not only to see, but also to determine what??™s wrong and what right. When Ralph met Piggy for the first time Piggy, “Wiped his glasses and adjusted them on his button … nose. The frame had made a deep, pink V on the bridge. p. 8. This shows Piggys glasses are very important part of him and his character. Also when Ralph tries to find a way to get help, and find a way to get out from the island, “Ralph waved the conch. ???Shut up! Wait! Listen!???He went on in the silence, borne on in his triumph. ???There??™s another thing. We can help them to find us. If a ship comes near the island they may not notice us. So we must make smoke on top of the mountain. We must make a fire.??? ???A fire! Make a fire!??? p. 33. Basically, without those glasses their wouldnt be any fire and any signals for rescue. Piggy??™s constant polishing of the specs shows his desire for clear-sightedness. In other words, Piggys glasses is the first necessity of civilization, they can also represent technology.
The second symbol I chose was a snake. It represents wisdom. The snake is used by Chinese mythology. The Chinese maintained that the world was surrounded by two intertwined snakes, which symbolized the power and wisdom of their creator. Piggy in this novel uses his wisdom to try to find a way to escape from the island. For example, when Ralph found the conch Piggy insisted, “We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting. They??™ll come when they hear us??””p.14. Also when Piggy lost his temper trying to explain to the kids they have to built, “How can you expect to be rescued if you don??™t put first things first and act proper”p.40. Wisdom is one of the things Piggy possesses during his incident after the plane crashes.
The third symbol is Piggys asthma inhaler. Piggy is disabled from doing any work on the island because of his asthma, which doesnt let him have a purpose on the island besides Ralphs advisor. For example when Piggy talks about him to Ralph, “My auntie told me not to run,” he explained, “on count of my asthma.” “Ass-mar” “Thats right. Cant catch me breath. I was the only boy with a touch of pride.” Piggys asthma problems made him different from the other boys, and he probably showed a small amount of pride because he knew that his asthma made him distinguished, even though it was really a negative.
The fourth symbol peacocks feather. This represents knowledge. In ancient Greece, the peacock was the patron bird of the goddess Hera. In the myth it is said that she says she placed “eyes” on its feathers, symbolizing all-seeing knowledge and the wisdom of the heavens. For instance, when Ralph who calls an emergency assembly respects Piggy as an equal and adopts his way of thinking, ???Piggy could think. He could go step by step inside that fat head of his, only Piggy was no chief. But Piggy, for all his ludicrous body, had brains.” p.72. Also Piggy explains, ” Life…is scientific….I know there isnt no beast…but I know there isnt no fear, either….Unless we get frightened of people,” p.77 – 78. Piggy is very clever and tries his best to help others find any help to get off of that island by using his wisdom.
Another symbol that represents him is buildings. It is obvious that Piggy is not a nature-looking boy by his looks, but is more of a town or city person. For example, when the ship was not that far from the island and didnt see the signal of the fire and passed it, “Piggy arrived, out of breath and whimpering like a littleun,” p.62. Piggy has asthma, which doesnt let him use any excess exercise and that??™s why maybe he is not used to spending time out in nature.
The other symbol which also represents Piggy is a chess rook. This symbol represents strategic thinking. Piggy during first meeting with Ralph suggests, “We can use this (conch) to call the others. Have a meeting,” p. 14. This is what he Piggy first suggests to Ralph. Then later in the novel it is said in chapter 4, that he brings to his mind that they should build a shelter for protection. Also another example is when Piggy plans to build a sun-dial,” Ive been thinking,” he said, “about a clock. We could make a sundial. We could put a stick in the sand, and then–,” p. 59. This shows Piggy thinking logically about tools which can help the other boys. The others hate Piggy, because of his unwilling to give up the logic and order of the old world of grown-ups.
The bishops??™ mitre is the other symbol that represent that represents a token of authority. Piggy shows that he still remains with a little civilization and humanity in himself. For example, “Then, with the martyred expression of a parent who has to keep up with the senseless ebullience of the children, he [Piggy] picked up the conch, turned toward the forest, and began to pick his way over the tumbled scar,” chapter 3. This shows that Piggy represents the law and order of the adult world. He also acts according to an absolute set of guidelines. Piggy tries to condition the island civilization as the one he lived in England.
The seventh symbol that represents Piggy is candy or chocolate. For example, when Piggy talk about himself to Ralph, ???I used to live with my auntie. She kept a candy store. I used to get ever so many candies. As many as I liked,” p. 11. Now, that there is no candy on the island Piggy eats everything he finds, like fruits and eats them, which causes him to have diarrhea, and stomach problems. Eating candy, as much as he wanted lead him to another factor, being obese.
The mask is made out of clay which in the novel says that the kids made their masks out of. I used bright colors for the mask. Gold glitter (color) and yellow represents wisdom. I used blue for the background, because it symbolizes peace (Piggy wanted to have peace among him and the others). Piggy is a character that I think is interesting, because of his use of knowledge, or wisdom, intelligence, and strategic thinking throughout the novel and how he differs from other kids.

The First Three Chapters of the Omnivores Dilemma

When first given the assignment of reading a segment of Michael Pollan??™s, ???The Omnivore??™s Dilemma??? I found myself feeling disappointed, dreading the task with every bone in my body. The assignment would consist of deciphering the beginning three chapters in the earliest part of the book titled: Industrial/Corn, where it is explained that corn is the main crop grown in America and how farmers growing it are in a vast deal of trouble. My anticipation included a long, drawn-out reading session in which I would be filled with boredom. To my surprise, I could have not been more inaccurate. While chapters one, two, and three are truly informative of the subject, they are also delightfully insightful and relatable with a relaxing, down to earth tone that grasps and holds the reader??™s interest.
Chapter one, The Plant: Corn??™s Conquest begins with a sturdy introduction that leads us to the place where we most commonly encounter this food, the supermarket, a site we are all familiar with. As we read on, we learn the importance of corn as it pertains to the food chain and its involvement in the many uses of our everyday lives. Pollan explains on page 19, ???There are some forty-five thousand items in the average American supermarket and more than a quarter of them now contain corn.??? Continuing chapter one includes learning why the corn plant is more efficient than most, how it came to colonize our land, and the arrangement in which it grows and adapts. While I admit that chapter one is so very educational that it could be described as tedious, hang in there, it becomes more interesting as chapter two commences.
We take a trip to the birthplace of corn in chapter two, The Farm. In this section of the material we are introduced to George Naylor, a corn farmer who carries on his family??™s tradition of growing the plant on the Naylor farm in Iowa. Pollan shares his experience of conversation with George as he expresses how the Naylor farm came to existence, the amount of people he is capable of feeding, why farmers are considered to be the most productive humans, and why these farmers like himself are in such a great predicament. It is in this chapter that Pollan embarks on a hands-on experience, planting the seed with George, furthering his knowledge of the plant and preparing him for the elevator, a twist in the plant??™s cycle.
It is in chapter three, The Elevator, where questions are answered about the fate of the millions of leftover bushels of corn that overflow the elevators from the previous year??™s crop. Pollan expresses his amazement on pages 57/58 as he sees ???the golden kernels everywhere, ground into the mud by tires and boots, floating in the puddles of rainwater, pancaked on the steel rails.??? For me it was shocking to learn that about three of every five kernels of commodity corn wind up journeying their way back home, to the farm, their place of birth. I also enjoyed how this section suggests a naturalist??™s way of looking at the leftover corn-biomass as a renewable energy source-and advantages like ethanol, as well as disadvantages like the contribution to both hunger and obesity. The elevator closes strong, involving the reader in questions regarding the corn??™s fate and introducing chapter four, The Feedlot: making meat.
So, is Michael Pollan??™s, ???The Omnivore??™s Dilemma??? (chapters one, two, and three) the snooze fest I had originally anticipated No, it is in fact not at all. It is however charmingly edifying concerning an industry we can all in some way relate to, corn. In these chapters Pollan takes the reader on a food voyage, challenging the way we all look at the meal in front of us on the way, all while remaining humble. He simply ventured out on a mission and shared with us what he found. I highly recommend it for everyone. Whether you are an omnivore, a farmer, an environmentalist, a politician, an educator, or just someone hoping to gain insight regarding the food you consume, you will not be disappointed.

Pig Farming


Received 169,000 from D.X.B. on 8/7/2011

a) Paid house rent for the month of July 14,000/-

b) Authorized Mato to take @ 10,000/-

c) Authorized Cathy to take @ 10,000/-

d) To cater for hospital bill @5,000/-

e) Bought used gate for modification later @ 20,000/- at New Kitusuru

f) Bought used gate for @ 4,000

g) Bought gate for pigs entrance @ 3,500/-

h) Transport cost incurred for both gates from Ruai to Nakuru @ 5,810

i) Bought a big water barrel for water at construction site @1,650/-

j) Made 3,967 pieces home made blocks size 18×8 for the perimeter wall for all six plots @5/- =19,835

k) Bought 4,000ltrs of water @ 2,000/-

l) Bought 6,200lts of water @ 2,800/-

m) Bought 7,200lts of water @ 3,000/-

Sub total cost =101,595/-

Withdraw 100,000 on 06/08/2011

Received 225,329 on 11/9/2011

Authorized to deposit money to Co-op bank Ukulima branch =80,000/-


a) Bought 25 bags of cement @ 720 =18,000/-

b) Bought sand at Mwariki pipeline 8tonnes @ 3000/- and cost of delivery @ 5,500=8,500/-

c) Labour cost used for perimeter wall so far @46,500

d) Polythene bags used as DPC for perimeter wall @1,000/-

Sub total cost =154,000/-


1. Excavation

Preparing field, uprooting trees and leveling the ground) for two days @ 500/-

2 kgs of nails 3???inches @ 360/-

1 kgs of 2 ? ???inches @130/-

Sisal rope @120/-

Offcuts 17pcs @55/- 900/-

Sub total cost=2,010

2. Foundation digging

Day one

Fundi Mwaura @ 800/-

4 casual labourers @1,800/-

Day two

2 casual labourers @ 600/-

Sub total=3,200

3. Foundation settings

Day one

Fundi Njuguna (snr) @ 800/-

2 casual labourers @ 250 =500/-

4 bags of cement @720=2880

Day two

Fundi Njuguna (snr) @800/-

2 casual labourers @250 =500/-

Fundi Karis @500

1 casual @ 100/-

Day three

Fundi Karis @ 500/-

Fundi Muya @500/-

Fundi Njuguna (snr) @800/-

2 casual labourers @250 =500/-

3 bags of cement @730 =2,190

Sub total=10,570

4. Hardcore filling

Day one

Fundi Njuguna @ 800/-

2 casual labourers @250 =500/-

Day two

Fundi Njuguna @800/-

3 casuals @250 =750/-

Day three

2 casual @250 =500/-

Two trips of 16 tones of hardcore @ 2000 plus transport from Maili Sita 11,000/- =13,000/-

Sub total=16,350


Fundi Njuguna @800/-

11 pieces of B.R.C mesh wire @6,660/-

Polythene bag Pvc 15 meters @3,320/-

26 bags @720 @18,720/-

8 casual labourers @200/- =1,600/-

Two trips of sand 16tonnes from Mwariki pipeline @6,000/- plus delivery @11,000/- =17,000/-

Bought 8 tones of ballast @2,200/- plus delivery @5,500/- =8,500/-

1,200 ft stones (6×9 )@13 plus delivery =11,700/-

2 casuals off loaders of stones @250 from Wanyororo B =500/-

8 casuals labourers @350/-=2,800/-

Fundi Njuguna @500/-

3 bags of cement for top skidding @730 =2190/-

Fundi Njuguna (snr)@ 800/-

One casual labourer @300/-

Sub total=75,390


Day one

Fundi Njuguna @800/-

Day two

Fundi Njuguna @800/-

2 bags of cement @720 =1,440/-

1 casual labourer @250/-

Two trips of [email protected] 14 =16,800/- plus transport from Maili Tisa @ 12,000/- =28,800/-

8 tones of sand @3,000/- from Rhoda Ngambo plus transport 5,500 =8,500/-

Day three

3 bags of cement @720 =2,190/-

Fundi Njuguna @800/-

Fundi Njuguna (snr) @800/-

Day four

3 bags of cement @720 =2,160

Fundi Baba Emma @ 800/-

Fundi Njuguna (snr) @800/-

Day five

Fundi Njuguna @800/-

2 bags of cement @ 720=1,440

Day six

2 bag of cement @720 =1,440

Fundi Muya @800/-

Sub total=52,620

7. Miscellaneous

Transport to New Kitusuru for two @400/-

Transport from Nrb to Nku @840/-

Transport from home to Wanyororo B @460/-

Transport to Ngecha for block makers @ 200/-

Transport to Nrb @510

Transport to Ruai and to NCBD for two @220/-

Hospital bill Avenue park @ 815

Transport from Nku to Mangu @110/-

Lucozade @625/-

Water tap and elbow @550/-

Transport from Nku to Nrb for two @860/-

Transport to Mlolongo and NCBD for two 240/-

Hospital bill Iran hospital @1,000

Transport to gikomba for two @ 280/-

House rent for month of August 14,000/-

Paid electricity, water, garbage bill @2,000/-

Hospital bill Dr. Kiyapi (Doctors plaza) @3,000/-

Transport from Jb, mwariki and pipeline @220

Transport from Nku to Nrb @520

Paid electricity bill for July @400

Transport to Nku to Free area for two @200

Transport back to Menengai for two @120

Transport to Nrb @420/-

Transport within NCBD for two @450/-

Transport to Nku for [email protected] 160/-

Transport for Nku @90/-

Transport for two to Mwariki for two @180/-

Transport to Blankets in Nku @90/-

Wheelbarrow repairs and new wheel @740/-

Two pairs of gumboots @1600/-

Two pairs of gloves @733

Gave cucu @1,300

Sub total=33,333



a) Timber sizes

120 ft (4×2) @40 = 4,800

850 ft (3×2) @33 = 28,050

450 ft (2×2) @ 26 = 11,700

Total = 44,550

b) Iron sheets (g32)

26 pieces @2 ? meters @585 =15,210

26 pieces @ 2 meters @480 =12,480

8 pieces of ridges @6ft 150 =1,200

Nails 4??? [email protected] =4,500

Nails 3??? 15 @ 150 =2,250

Hoop iron one roll @3,600

20 ltrs Wood preservative @600

Transport @2,000

Total =41840

Sub total =86,390

Wall plastering
Estimated cost of water =6,000/-
Estimated labour cost =15,000
16 tones @ 3000 plus delivery @ 11,000=14,000/-
30 bags of cement @720 =21,600

Plastering feeding area
15 bags of cement @720 =10,800
Estimated labour cost =8,000
Rent for September and water electricity =15,000/-
Estimated cost for a served sow @30,000/-
Estimated cost for feeds @10,000/-
Estimated cost of remaining perimeter wall @50,000
Estimated cost for gate modification @20,000

Sub total=200,000/-

Grand total=535,458

Money sent from DXB =394,329

Money I withdraw from my account (Martin)= 100,000

Note: Please some of the money you gave us as a token we threw them back to the project which is 29,439/-


Nov 9/11/2011


7/10/2011 received 81,200/- from DXB

a) Paid house rent for month of October -14,200/-
Hospital bill Nyumbani hospital Karen for lab test-4000/-
Fare from NKU to NRB to Tena -1,200
Fare to Syokimau for two -300
Electricity bill -250/-
Iranian hospital for drugs -1,740/-
Fare to both hospitals ??“ 500
Authorized Njuguna to take -1,000/-
Subtotal =23,190/-

b) Fare back to Nku for two -1,200
Cyber cost-270
Airtime -100/-
Subtotal =1,570/-

( c) 8 tones of sand -3,100
Transport from Mwariki 5,500/-
22 bags of cement 15,840/-
Transport to Mwariki and Blankets -250

(d)Fare to Nku for two-120/-
Transport back -200/-
Avenue hospital consultation ??“ 500
Dr.Kiyapi -1,800/-
Dr.Murugu nutritionist ??“ 1000/-
Bought fruits recommended -350
Subtotal =-3,970/-

(e) 10 bags of cement -7,200/-
600ft of stones from Maili Tisa -8,400/-
Transport Maili Tisa -6,000/-
Nylon polythene -400
Fare to town and Maili Tisa -220
Subtotal =22,220/-

Day one
Fundi njuguna -800/-
Fundi Muya -800/-

Day two
Fundi Muya -800/-

Day three
Fundi Njuguna -800/-
Fundi Muya -800/-

Day four
Fundi Njuguna (SNR) -800/-
Fundi Muya -800/-
Fundi Baba Ema ??“ 800/-

Day five
Fundi Steve ??“ 800/-
Fundi Njuguna ??“ 800/-

Subtotal =8,000/-

Grand total =83,640/-

Received 111,870/- from DXB on 13/10/2011

Bought trees at Ngecha -1,200/-
Bodaboda Mike -400/-

DAP fertilizer 1kg -120/-
Uchumi shopping -203/-
Fare to Nku for two -200/-
Pawpaw -80/-
Subtotal =603

Transport to Nuke -200

Day one
Fundi njuguna -800/-
Fundi baba Emma -800/-
Day two
Fundi njuguna (snr) -800/-
Fundi Baba Emma -800/-
Subtotal =3,200

14pieces ? PPR pipes green -6,300/-
3kgs waterproof cement @150 -450/-
1 piece 2 ? pipe -920
Subtotal =7,670

160 Blocks @5 -800/-
300 blocks @5-1,500/-
130 blocks @5-650/-
270 blocks @5 -1350/-
322 blocks @5 – 1610

Day one
Fundi njuguna ??“ 800/
Casual labourer -200/-
Day two
Fundi njuguna -800/-
Njanduong -200
Day three
Fundi njuguna -800/-
fundi Muya -800
Airtime -100
Subtotal =3,700

2 Pillars 16ft -4,000/-
Labour cost -150/-
Casual labourer -200/-
Shamba tilling -450/-
Sub total =4,800/-

Day one
Fundi Njuguna -800/-
Fundi steve -800/-
Day two
Fundi Njuguna -800/-
Fundi Steve -800/-

Roofing Timber -36,450/-
Polythene Nylon -1,600/-
1kg of 3??™??™ inches nails -100/-
Bodaboda -200/-
Subtotal =38,350/-

Day three
Fundi Njuguna -800/-
Day four
Fundi njuguna (snr) -800/-
2 casual labourers -400/-
2kgs nails 4??™??™ inches -200/-
4 kgs nails 4??™??™ inches -600/-
3kgs nails 3 ? ?????™ inches -450/-
6 kgs of roofing nails -1,050/-
6kgs nails 5??™??™ -900/-
52 Galsheet Mabati 2 ? and 2 m =27,846
7 ridges @160 =1,120
Hoop iron 10kgs -1,600/-
Wood preservative 20lts green zone -500
Transport for all the above -2,500/-
Casual laborer -170/-

Subtotal =38,936/-

Day five
Fundi baba Emma -600/-
Fundi Njuguna (snr) -800/-
Njaduong -200/-
Airtime -100
2 kgs 5??™??™ inches -320/-
3 casual laborers -600/-
Subtotal =2,620/-

Day six
Fundi Njuguna -800/-
Fundi Muya -800/-
Trees -1,500
Subtotal -3,100

Transport to Nrb -1,200
Transport to Tena -100
Sub total -1,300

Grand subtotal as at 9/11/2011 =115,189

Received 100,000/- from DXB on 10/11/2011
Paid Kate cash -40,300/-
Paid house rent/elec/water bill 14,450/-
Repairs of dead lock and two pairs of keys ??“ 600/-
Naivas shopping in NRB -1190/-
Transport to Nrb and back to Nku for two -900/-
Mache hardware cement and other assortment -11,225/-
C.K. Patel hardware iron sheets- 9,720/-
Tranport for cement and mabati -1,200/-
Bought trees at Ngecha [Ndungu??™s] -800/-
Fruits -680/-
2 pcs of lordex @270 -540/-
Plumbing for pig pens ??“ 2,500/-
Mache hardware 20 bags of cement -14,800/-
Bought sand from pipeline -3,100/-
Transport for sand from pipeline -6,000/-
Njaduong labour for shamba -600/-
Milk for December holidays -500
Fair and airtime to Nku -600/-
C.N. and D.A.P fertilizer -750/-


Day one
Fundi Muya & Njuguna ??“ 1,600/-
Day two
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1,600/-
Day three
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1,600/-
Day four
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1,600/-
Digging trenches 2 casuals labourers @250/- =500/-


28/11/2011 Received 4,000 in Nakuru

Day One
Fundi Muya, Fundi Njuguna -1,600/-
Day Two
Fundi Muya & Fundi Jose-1,600/-
Day Three
Fundi Muya, Njuguna & Jose -2,400/-
Day four
Fundi Muya, Njuguna & Jose -2,400/-
2 casuals @ 250/- -500/-


30/11/2011 Received 10,000 via M-pesa from Carol

10/12/2012 Received 4,000/- in Nrb
2 Ms Push taps @ 3,500/-
5 kgs of Ms Plate @100 -500/-
8 ft flat bar -800/-
1 pc cutting disc -150/-


10/12/2012 Received 90,000/- in NRB
Paid Kate cash -21,000/-
Labour fixing, welding, paints for main gate -5,500/-
C.K. Patel hardware 9,480/-
C.K. Patel hardware cement and others 9,895/-
38ft of 6×1 of timber plus assorted metal -1,420/-
Transport to Patti??™s home for ferrying pig -1,500/-
6 pieces of sacks for sawdust @30 -180/-
20 kgs twisted metal -1,290/-
Njaduong labour -400/-


Fundi baba Emma -800/-
FundiNjuguna (snr) -800/-
Fundi Muya -800/-
3 casuals @ 250 -750


Feeding troughs /flooring & fixing the small entrance gate
Day one
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1,600/-
Day two
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1600/-
Day three
Fundi Muya & Njuguna -1600/-
Day four
Fundi Muya & Jose ??“ 1,600/-
Subtotal =6,400/-

7/12/2011 Received 10,000/- [Kate]
For buying feeds

30/12/2011Received 9,000/- from Ben[Dubai]
Mache hardware 10 bags of cement ,5 butt hinges,wood screws,pad bolts dev–10,370/-
Transport from Nku -1,200
Tactic drug for mingemites -170/-
2 pcs trigger spray -180/-
Scrapper handle -230/-
Transport to Elburgon,Njoro, Egerton -920/-
Sawdust 6 bags @50 -300/-
Transport from Nku- 1,420/-
Reshaping remaining stones to fix the gate 106ft @5/- =530/-
Macharia 180ft @25 of timber -4,500/-
Njuguna assorted metal -1,650/-


17/12/2011 Received from envelope 20,000/- [Nrb]
For transport from Tena to Nku -10,000/-
Authorized each to take 2,500/- =5,000/-


Bought feeds saw/weaners 5 [email protected],200 -11,000/-
7 Pieces of gutters @270 -1,890/-


Flooring/Gate pillars
Fundi Karimi & Kamau -900/-
Fundi Karimi & Kamau -900/-
Fundi Karimi & Kamau -900/-
Fundi Karimi & Kamau – 900/-
14 tones of sand from Mwariki Pipeline @3,200/-
Transport from pipeline -6,000/-
10 bags of cement -7,400/-
Transport for two to Nku -210


Received 58,450 from DXB on 15/1/2012
Bought 3 pigs from Egerton 1 sire and 2 gilts @ 10,000/- =30,000/-
Bought 5 bags of creep pellets @1,610 =8,050/-
Transport for both feeds and pigs from Egerton -3,000/-
Transport to Nku -100/-
Njanduong labour ??“ 200/-

Received 8,000/- from Geoffrey Amuhaya Via M-pesa on 27/1/2012
Fair for two to Nrb -860/-
20 pieces of Pig nipples @350/- paid via m-pesa -7,045/-
Tuskey??™s shopping -520/-
Lucerne -780/-
Coriander seeds -140/-
Fair for two to Nku ??“ 260
Cathy -1,000/-
Benard Etale -600/-
Iodine Induce 500ml -300/-
Multivitamins 100ml -200/-
Noromectin 100ml -1,000/-
Pen-strip 50ml -220/-
Teeth clippers -550/-
Vetmycin spray -350/-
4 surgical blades -40/-
4 syrups nidles 20ml -80/-
Tuskey??™s shopping -366/-
Fair to Nku [dahabshil] for two -560/-

Received 55,700/- from DXB on 20/02/2012
Fair for two to Nku -280/-
Bought one served saw from Ngaes Olive in Kiamunyi -25,000/-
Transport from Nku to Ngae??™s place for collection of pig -1,300/-
Nakumatt shopping -295/-
Pork meat/cooked -500
Transport for two to Nku -280/-
Gilgil plot transfer fee from Thumbi??™s Name to Katherine paid to Nakuru Headtechers Sacco Acc Co-op Bank ??“ 10,000/-
Chicken Milk ??“ 1,000/-
5 bags of cement @740 /-=3,700/-
2 bags of sawdust @50/- =100/-
Photocopies of notes from Ministry of agriculture -72
Airtime -150/-
Transport to Nku for two 280/-
Transport to Nku for two 280/-
Nakumatt shopping -295/-
Transport to Nku for two 280/-
Airtime -200/-
Kate -100/-
Kelvin [feeds] ??“ 200/-
Uchumi shopping ??“ 500/-
1 kg meat -340/-
Fruits -200/-

Flooring/Walling the Corridor
Fundi Karimi and Kamau ??“ 900/-
Fundi Karimi and Kamau ??“ 900/-
Fundi Karimi and Kamau ??“ 900/-
1 kg meat -350/-
Travelled to Mr.Gitonga??™s farm in Lanet plus shopping ??“ 1,300/-
Paid water bill and milk -1,200/-
Tuskey??™s shopping -311/-
Airtime -300/-
Fair for two to Nku -280/-
Soft broom -180
Travelled to Kariandusi(Gilgil) Mr.Trever Hall Farm and booked two Gilts -420/-
Bought 15meters of heavy nylon paper -2,200/-


Received 111,269 from DXB on 16/2/2012
Authorized each to take 10,000/-=20,000/-
2 pigs gilts @25,000/- =50,000/-
Pig permits @ 25 =50/-
Transport for pigs to Kariandusi Mr. Trevor??™s Farm=4,000/-
Daina Feeds =32,380/-
Menengai Agrovet multivitamins -180/-
Transport for two to Nku-140
Transport to Nku for two -280
Daina bone meal and premix -525/-


Received 40,000/- from DXB on 10/4/2012
Tusky??™s shopping -1,149/-
Mr.Obwaga -500/-
Boda boda -80/-
Kinyua transport -200/-
Miracle animal feeds -7,200/-
Nakumatt shopping -2,533/-
Transport cost -1,500/-
Fair to town for two -140
Njaduong labour -900/-
260 blocks @5/- =1,300/-
200 blocks @5/- =1,000/-
230 blocks @5/- =1,150/-
Airtime -150
One chicken -500/-
Miracle animal feeds -6,000/-
Syringes -167/-
Transport -500/-
Fair for two 140/-
Airtime -200/-


Received 152,700/- from DXB on 152,700/-
Orange line plus airtime -170/-
Airtell line plus airtime -100/-
Fare for two- 440/-
Photocopies -127/-
Scanning -60/-
Internet -62/-
Fair for two -140/-
Groceries -1,627/-


200 blocks @5/- =1,000/-
144 blocks @5/- =720/-
Casual labour George -400/-
Stones 6×9 (600ft) @14 -8,400/-
Nakumatt shopping -702/-
Hardware world -11,150/-
Fair to maili tisa -120/-
Transport for stones -6,000/-

Subtotal =28,492/-
Tusky??™s -2,344/-
Fair to town for two -280/-
Airtime -200/-
Groceries -450/-
Daina feeds -19,600/-
One chicken -770/-
4 kgs of soya ??“ 240/-
14 tonnes of sand -3,000/-
Transport for sand -5,000/-
Transport for two -140/-
Subtotal =32,024/-

Day one
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day two
Fundi Karimi -900/-
Day three
Fundi Karimi -900/-
Day four
Fundi Karimi -900/-
Day five
Fundi Karimi -900/-
Day six
Fundi Karimi -900

Subtotal =5,400/-

Airtime -50
Fair back home for two -140/-
Casual labourer mama emma -600/-
Fair for two to nku -140/-
Groceries -340/-
Subtotal =1,270/-

Received 100,000/- on 2/5/2012
Tuskeys shopping ??“ 2,344/-
Fair to town for two ??“ 280/-
Airtime -200/-
Fruits -450/-
Subtotal =3,274

Perimeter fence
Day one
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day two
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day three
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Four
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Five
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Six
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Seven
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Eight
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Nine
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Ten
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Eleven
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day twelve
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Thirteen
Fundi Karimi ??“ 900/-
Day Fourteen
Fundi Muchiri X3 =2,700/-
Day Fifteen
Fundi Atemo X12 -10,800/-

Subtotal =25,200/-

Hospital bill first round ??“ 8,324/-
Gloves ??“ 500/-
Subtotal =8,824/-

Daina feeds -19,600/-
One tray of eggs ??“ 270/-
Kuku -500/-
4 kgs soya beans -240/-
14 tonnes of sans Rhoda Ng??™ambo -3,000/-
Transport for sand ??“ 5,000/-
Lunch ??“ 100/-
Transport to town ??“ 140/-
Subtotal =28,850/-

Mama Ema casual labourer ??“ 600/-
Fair to town -140/-
1 kg meat -340/-
Fruits -350/-
Fair back -70/-
Hospital bill round two plus fair to Nrb -11,418/-
Ascarex for pigs ??“ 200/-
Tuskeys shopping ??“ 1,063/-
Groceries ??“ 625/-
Water bill ??“ 1,500/-
Goat meat -680/-
Casual labourer ??“ 300/-
214 blocks @5 -1,070/-
Ndungu fruits trees ??“ 200/-
Casual labouerers -700/-
10 bags cement ??“ 7,300/-
5 bags of sawdust @50/- 250/-
Ascarex ??“ 200/-
20 ft waste pipe ??“ 1,450/-
Nakumatt shopping -340/-
Tuskeys shopping ??“ 1,189/-
Groceries -515/-
450 blocks @ 5 =2,250/-
Casual labourer -100/-
Miracle feeds ??“ 5,350/-
Nakumatt shoppings ??“ 3,340/-
Casual labouerer -450/-
Fruits trees ??“ 500/-
Milk ??“ 90/-
Daina feeds ??“ 19,600/-
Nakumatts shopping -1,080/-
Uchumi shopping -1,740/-
Casual labourer -200/-
10 polls -640/-
170 blocks @5 =850/-
Casual labouer -500/-
Top tank 10,000 ltrs -67,040/-
Transport to Nrt for tank -1,183/-
George labour -250/-
Milk -430/-
235ft @5=1,190/-
274ft @5=1,370/-
Waterproof cement -900/-
Airtime -200/-
350 blocks @5=1,600/-
Davie welder -1,350/-

Subtotal =142,703/-

Received 100,000/- from DXB on 15/06/2012
Fair to Nku -170
Kemps hardware-2,339/-
Milk -760/-
5 bags Creep pellets farmers world -7,800/-
Groceries -500/-
5 bags of cement -3,650/-
Bought trees plus boda boda to Ngecha -800/-
Tusky??™s shopping -1,529/-
One tray of eggs -290/-
Fair to Nku-140/-
Airtime -200/-
Milk -500/-
Whey for pigs -300/-
Mache hardware -4,400/-
Hospital bill consultation -2,500/-
Whey for pigs plus transport -700/-
Ascarex for pigs -200/-
One kuku -600
One casual labourer for shamba -400
Groceries and fruits -840/-
Daina feeds -19,210/-
Water bill -1,000/-
Dr.Osore conlstation fee -1,000/-
Lab test plus medicine -4,800/-
4 pcs PVC pipes ? class D -1,000/-
Pelvic Ultra sound X-ray -2,400/-
Meems water pipings -1,570/-
Tuskys shopping -855/-
2 fish @300 -600/-
5 bags of cement -3,625/-
Whey for pigs plus transport -800/-
Water bill -1,000/-
Milk -400/-
Tuskeys shopping -2,500/-

Subtotal =69,608/-

Received 100,000/- from DXB 12/07/2012


Mache hardware -3,625/-
14 tonnes of ballast -3,000/-
6X9 stones 600ft -8,400/-
Transport for ballast from Ahero -6,000/-
Transport for stones from Ahero -6,000/-
C.K Patel -1,660/-
10 bags of cement -7,300/-
Meems hardware -5,955/-
Water fittings -180/-
14 tonnes sand Kwa Rhoda Ngambo -3,200/-
Transport fromRhoda Ngambo -5,000/-
Fare to Nku -140/-
6×9 stones 600ft -8,400/-
10 bags of cement Hardware world -7,300/-
6×9 stones 600ft -8,400/-
Transport for stones -5,000/-
10 bags of cement -7,300/-
20 bags of cement -14,600/-
Angle line 10ft -350
? tap -80/-
Cement transport -800/-
Meems hardware -900/-
Subtotal =87,890/-

1. Excavation

Preparing field, uprooting trees and leveling the ground)

2 kgs of nails 3???inches @ 360/-

1 kgs of 2 ? ???inches @130/-

Twin rope one roll @300/-

Sub total cost=790/-

2. Foundation digging/setting

Day one

Fundi Nicholas @ 1,000/-

3 casual labourers @300 =900/-

Day two

6 casual labourers @ 300/- =1,800/-

2 casuals labourers @300/- =600/-

Sub total=4,300/-

3. Foundation settings

Day one

Fundi Atemo @ 900/-

4 casual labourers @ 400 =1,600/-

Day two

Fundi Atemo @900/-

3 casual labourers @300 =1,200/-

Subtotal =4,600/-


Day one

Fundi Atemo -900/-

Fundi John -900/-

Day two

Fundi Atemo -900/-

Fundi John -900/-

Subtotal =3,600/-

5. Walling

Day one

Fundi John -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

One casual labour -300/-

2 Wheelbarrows for hire @100-200/-

Day two

Fundi john -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

2 casuals @200 =400/-

2 Wheelbarrows for hire @100-200/-

Day three

Fundi john -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

Day four

Fundi john -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

Day five

Fundi john -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

Day six

Fundi john -900/-

Fundi Atemo -900/-

2 casuals @300 -600/-

Subtotal =12,500/-

The First Sino Japanese War

The Japanese government had always had nationalist ideas of expansion, and were determined to conquer territory on the Asian mainland. The Sino-Japanese War was not the first attempt at invading their closest neighbouring country of Korea; during the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568-1600), Japan??™s Tokugawa Shogunate government attempted to defeat Korea by invading the peninsula in 1593, which turned out not to be a victory as Japan was not economically or militarily strong enough. By the 1850??™s, Japan??™s population was rapidly increasing, and the influence of western societies had led to modernisation. The Tokugawa government was falling apart, and Japan was seeking expansion onto the mainland, which resulted in a demand for war.

Rather than a series of random events, the build-up during the 1870??™s and 1880??™s which lead up to the first Sino-Japanese war was more a series of carefully planned moves by Japan to lead China into the war as a part of a successful economic and territorial program, the Meiji Restoration. Halliday, J (1975) stated, ???It is no accident that Korea, Japan??™s nearest geographical neighbour, was the first object of Meiji Japan??™s expansionism,??? which is certainly true; Japan was interested in Korea for the supply of raw materials for their developing industries, and for land and food for their rapid growing population. Geographically Korea was also positioned perfectly for Japan; it could provide a bridge to attack both China and Russia, gaining support for the government. The most nationalist and aggressive Japanese leaders, such as Itagaki and Saigo, demanded war instantly, and in 1873 they obtained permission to send a military expedition to Korea. However, this attack strategy was abandoned because of opposition from the individuals returning from the Iwakura mission, which was an expedition in 1871 to study the West to attempt to obtain treaty revision. The members of the Iwakura mission believed that their plan was more important; internal improvements to the nation were said to be a higher priority.

In 1875?¬, the Koreans attacked a Japanese warship which was surveying the coast of Korea. This gave Japan quite a valid excuse to demand a military response right away ??“ they sent a mission to Peking (Beijing), as well as a mission to Korea which was assisted by one of their strongest naval forces. China denied any responsibility for the attack, and asked Japan to negotiate this with Korea instead (which would soon turn out to be a mistake.)

Following this incident a year later in 1876, Japan and Korea signed the Treaty of Kangwha – a deal to establish diplomatic relations with each other, opening up two ports to Japanese trade. This lead to Japan??™s realisation of Korea??™s independence, indicating it was no longer tributary to China. Unable to change this, China proceeded by opening Korea to Western powers such as Britain, France, Germany and Italy, who all signed similar treaties with Korea in between 1882-1886. The treaties assisted in gaining control for Korea later, strengthening the independence of the country.

In 1884, while China was occupied in war with France over Vietnam, a group of reformers called The Progressives, led by Kim Ok-kyun took this opportunity to seize the King (with the assistance of Japanese troops.) However, Chinese troops repelled the Japanese away, leaving Kim Ok-kyun to flee back to Japan. Korea apologized by a convention signed in 1885, and agreed to rebuild the Japanese legation quarters which were burned. These events showed Japan and China that they had to come to agreements with their disagreeing interests for Korea; neither was truly ready to go to war over Korea. Modernisation was more important for Japan at the time and China believed that they could increase their control over Korea in time. The Treaty of Tientsin in 1885 provided for mutual troop withdrawals and advance notification of any new troop movements into Korea, settling the issue for the time being.

As discussed by historian Halliday, Russia was also one of the biggest threats to Japan; Russian territorial gains from 1858 in China made them one of Japan??™s biggest enemies. Russia was a real problem for their plans; Russian marines occupied an island between Japan and Korea, Tsushima, as well as the waters (however they lost this position because of British opposition). In 1884, an agreement was made between Korea and Russia, which enabled an ice-free port on the east coast of Korea to be used in return for training the Korean army. However, the King of Korea was convinced by China not to agree with this plan, and was therefore overruled.

In 1891, Russia announced their plans to build the mighty Trans-Siberian Railway. This was the worst news for Japan; building this railway could lead to Russia having control over Korea, destroying Japan??™s ideas completely. Japan had to move quickly, and the only way to stop Russia??™s eastward expansion was to have Korea under their control. They knew they did not have much time left to resolve any matters with Korea and China before the completion of the railway would finish Russia??™s eastward expansion; before it would alter the balance of power in the Far East and preclude any Japanese influence in Korea. China would not give away their domination of Korea; so therefore, war was the only option left.

The first cause of the war was due to the rebellion of an anti-government and anti-foreign religious group, the Tonghak, in March 1894. Notifying Japan (due to the Li-Ito Convention agreement), China sent a force of around 1500 men to assist Korea in defeating the rebellion. Japan reacted by sending a larger troop of around 7000 men; Japan was doing so because they feared that China could possibly gain more control over Korea while defending them from the rebellion. Both the Chinese and Japanese troops were requested by China to be brought back shortly after, as Korea was capable of stopping the uprising by themselves, however, Japan refused to bring back theirs as they believed they were now determined to exploit the situation; they were strong enough to go to war.

On July 23 1894, Japanese troops seized the royal palace, after the King of Korea did not accept Japan??™s programme of reforms. Only two days after this, Japan sank a Chinese-troop ship carrying reinforcements to Korea, the Kowshing. Japan??™s actions had made war no longer stoppable, and on August 1 1894, the first Sino-Japanese War was officially declared by Japan. ???Since China??™s government, too, was under domestic pressures, there was from this point no hope of avoiding war??? (Beasley, W.G. 2008.)
As the war was declared, it was thought that Japan simply had no chance up against China due to the difference in size and power of the armies. China had a rapidly larger army and navy than Japan, however, they were still using the traditional weapons; swords and spears. Japan had kept up with the times, and after the Meiji Restoration the Emperor of Japan had decided to ???Europeanise??™ his country, which meant first modernising his army. They used modern weapons which were far more superior to China??™s; Japan was armed with repeating rifles, designed by a Japanese colonel from European models. The Japanese navy was also copied from Europe; the dockyards were thoroughly equipped with the best vessels. The equipment of the Japanese Imperial Army easily pushed China??™s troops out of Korea, and without the railways, most of the battles were only possible at sea. Historian Beasley W.G (2008) stated, ???By the end of September 1894 ??“ to the surprise not only China, but also the world ??“ the Japanese army controlled most of Korea, while they had command of the Yellow Sea???, Which is no doubt true; it was not expected that Japan was capable of destroying China with such a small army. But once the Japanese Imperial Navy attacked the Peiyang fleet in the Battle of the Yellow Sea, China and the rest of the world realised that the weapons Japan had access to were fast and accurate; Japan were weakening the Chinese, who by this stage had run out of ammunition and were no longer prepared for war with Japan . The Japanese had the powerful military that China never had expected, and never were prepared for.

In early 1895, the Japanese armies progressed to Peking, and they couldn??™t be stopped. China asked for peace, they were defeated and had nothing left to defend themselves and fight back for the control over Korea. On 17 April 1895 Li and Ito signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki; accepting Japan??™s harsh demands and conditions, and officially ending the first Sino-Japanese War. After more than six months of continuous success by the Japanese army and naval forces, China surrendered.

After the Treaty of Shimonoseki, China recognised the full independence of Korea, ending its tributary status. Japan was therefore able to strengthen her influence in the country further, and immediately pressured the Korean government to carry out a reform programme, which they did not accept. With the support of Russia, the Japanese-instigated reforms were cancelled by the King. So the battle for control over Korea was still present, but only between Japan and Russia.

Japan gained many advantages from the Sino-Japanese war. Not only did Japan have more influence on Korea afterwards, but extraterritorial rights were also granted to Japan, and they also received an indemnity of 200 million taels of silver from China, being a great economic benefit to the nation. The Sino-Japanese Commercial Treaty in 1896 also put Japan on an equal footing with the Western powers in China, gaining the same privileges. Japan also earned the right to participate in industry and manufacture in the treaty ports, which were to be excused from taxes. This was absolutely dreadful for the Chinese economy.

Although Japan had achieved what it had set out to accomplish, that is to end Chinese influence over Korea, Japan reluctantly had been forced to abandon the Liaodong Peninsula, in exchange for an increased financial indemnity. While having no objection to the other sections of the treaty, Russia did feel that Japan should not gain the Liaodong Peninsula, for they had their own ambitions in that part of the world. Russia persuaded Germany and France to join her in applying diplomatic pressure on the Japanese, resulting in the Triple Intervention of 23 April 1895. In 1898, Russia ended up obtaining a 25 year lease of the Liaotung Peninsula, which brought Japan and Russia closer to armed conflict. However, even though this infuriated the Japanese, they were still more concerned with Russian encroachment toward Korea than this.

The victory for Japan proved their ideas for expansionism , militarism and modernisation. . An armaments programme was launched to increase Japan??™s prestige army and navy; to make them a leading military power. It improved financial, economic and industrial activities in the country as well as increasing foreign trade, including merchant shipping. Navigation and shipbuilding in Japan also made great progress.

The First Sino-Japanese War stimulated Japan??™s national pride and power through their victory; it lead them to the world-power status they have today. For the first time in over 2000 years, regional dominance in East Asia had shifted from China to Japan, leading to China suffering a big loss and absolute victory for Japan.. The Japanese success was all due to the modernisation and industrialisation they had successfully embarked upon in the past decades beforehand.. The victory for Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War contributed to establishing Japan as a dominant power of Asia in the modern period today.


Mrs Shacklock??™s jewellery was stolen from her hotel bedroom. She had left it in a locked suitcase under her bed, but had left her room unlocked as otherwise the chambermaid would not have been able to gain access, since the hotel had no duplicate keys.
keep them safely. It signifies for, so far as that obligation is concerned, if they are stolen by
Was the hotel liable for the loss of her jewellery

Lord MacMillan:

???By common law of England, an innkeeper is responsible to his guests if any of their goods are lost or stolen while on his premises. As it was put, so long ago as 1550 in argument in RENIGER v FOGOSSA (1552) 1 Plowd. 1 @ p. g: ???… by the common custom of th realm, hosts shall be charged for the goods of their guests lost or stolen within their premises….??™

???The principle, … is common to most, if not all, systems of jurisprudence, and was first promulgated in the praetor??™s edict nautae, caupones, stabularii. It has been said historically to have arisen owing to the danger of collusion between innkeepers and thieves.??™
tremendous liability; it is a liability fixed upon the innkeeper by the fact that he has taken goods in…

Had the loss been due to Mrs Shacklock??™s own fault, ie her leaving her room unlocked It was held that she had not been at fault, since the arrangements at the hotel required her to leave her room unlocked and she had put the jewellery out of the way in a locked suitcase.

[*The liability of a baillee or pledgee of goods extends only to taking reasonable care of their safety. That of the innkeeper gives him absolute liability, unless the goods are lost through the fault of the traveller himself, or as a result of an Act of God or the action of the Queen??™s enemies, or if the circumstances indicate that the traveller had taken upon himself the safekeeping of his property to the exclusion
???The innkeeper??™s and rights of innkeepers with respect to goods brought to inns by guests are founded, not upon bailment, or pledge, or contract, but upon the custom of the realm with regard to innkeepers.

Their rights and liabilities are dependent upon that, and that alone; they do not come under any other heading of law… the innkeeper??™s liability is not that of a bailee or pledgee of goods*; he is bound to burglars, or by servants of the inn, or by another guest; he is liable for not keeping them safely unless they are lost by the fault of the traveller himself. That is a
of the innkeeper. This last liability exists quite apart from any question of negligence on his part. When the old writ charges the innkeeper ???pro defectu hujusmodi hospitatorum??™, the ???defectus??™ means merely ???a failure DE FACTO to keep safely??™ (Holmes on the Common Law, 1881, p. 201). In the words of Lord Esher MR in ROBINS & Co. v GRAY [1895] 2QB 501 @ 503-4, ???the duties, liabilities, exception is very difficult indeed to prove].

The Wagon Mound (no. 1) [1961] AC 388

D discharged oil from their ship. It was reasonably foreseeable that this would clog P??™s wharf, but not that the oil would catch fire. It did in fact catch fire on the surface of the water and P??™s wharf was burnt down.

It was held that although this damage was the direct result of D??™s negligence, D was not liable because fire damage was not a kind of damage

The First Modern War

The Civil War is often considered the first “modern” American war for a variety of reasons. What was significant and wholly new about the war America waged war between the North and South during the Civil War Think in terms of technology, economy, and tactics. Also, how did the fighting of the war differ from the its beginning to its end
Civil War one side (meaning the North) “was wholly and eternally right,” while the other side (meaning the South) “was wholly and eternally wrong.” I might cite those on the Southern side of the great controversy, equally sincere and fully as able, who would have been glad to persuade posterity that the North was “wholly and eternally wrong”; that her people waged war upon sister States who sought peacefully to set up a homogeneous government, and meditated no wrong or warfare upon the remaining sister States. These Southern leaders steadfastly maintained that the Southern people, in the exercise of the freedom and sovereign rights purchased by Revolutionary blood, were asserting a second independence according to the teachings and example of their fathers.
But what good is to come to the country from partisan utterances on either side My own well-considered and long-entertained opinion, my settled and profound conviction, the correctness of which the future will vindicate, is this: that the one thing which is “wholly and eternally wrong” is the effort of so-called statesmen to inject one-sided and jaundiced sentiments into the youth of the country in either section. Such sentiments are neither consistent with the truth of history, nor conducive to the future welfare and unity of the Republic. The assumption on either side of all the righteousness and all the truth would produce a belittling arrogance, and an offensive intolerance of the opposing section; or, if either section could be persuaded that it was “wholly and eternally wrong,” it would inevitably destroy the self-respect and manhood of its people. A far broader, more truthful, and statesmanlike view was presented by the Hon. A. E. Stevenson, of Illinois, then Vice-President of the United States, in his opening remarks as presiding officer at the dedication of the National Park at Chickamauga. In perfect accord with the sentiment of the occasion and the spirit which led to the establishment of this park as a bond of national brotherhood, Mr. Stevenson said: “Here, in the dread tribunal of last resort, valor contended against valor. Here brave men struggled and died for the right as God gave them to see the right.”
Mr. Stevenson was right — ” wholly and eternally right.” Truth, justice, and patriotism unite in proclaiming that both sides fought and suffered for liberty as bequeathed by the Fathers–the one for liberty in the union of the States, the other for liberty in the independence of the States.



Explain why Piedmont had been
modernized by 1859 [24]

After the failure of the 1848 revolutions, Piedmont was the only state left with a constitutional government, the Statuto, as well as the new king, Victor Emmanuel II. With this new constitution many changes were made to Piedmont, especially by the influence of the newly appointed Minister of Trade Cavour, who later was appointed Prime Minister. Cavour had a great love for Britain after studying there for a short length of time. He was intrigued by the political system, as it was far superior to that of Italy. Cavour made many changes to Piedmont by developing ideas such as railways and good trade links throughout Europe.
Due to the new constitutional government introduced by Charles Albert, thousands of Italian nationalists moved to Piedmont. Due to this rise in population more money was coming into the Piedmont government, partly due to the increase of taxes. Cavour, who had borrowed money from the Bank of Hambro, London, introduced this increase of taxes as a way of repaying his 725 million lire debt. With this money Cavour was able to develop ideas such as railways across 850km of Italy. These railways improved communication as well as making it easier to transport troops around Piedmont and Italy.
Over the 1850??™s Piedmont had become economically strong due to its free trade links with other countries. These trade links gave Piedmont the advantage, they were able to develop close political relationships with these countries as well as increase their imports and exports by 300%. This increase helped to develop Piedmont as the government could use the increase of money to work on new ideas such as the building of canals. These canals boosted the construction industry and also employed hundreds of people.
At the time, Britain was in an industrial revolution that Cavour and Northern Italy became greatly interested in. Due to this, Piedmont began to promote different entrepreneurs, and soon a telegraph linked Turin to Paris. This link made it easier to communicate with France who, with hindsight, we know was of great value to Piedmont some years later.
Although having a close relationship with France, and knowing the majority of both countries consisted of Catholics, Piedmont introduced the Siccardi Laws. These laws limited the power of the Catholic Church. This showed the people that Piedmont wanted to free itself from the control of the Church and become different. By introducing these laws Piedmont helped itself economically in many ways including reducing the number of feast days each year on which people were forbidden to work. Due to this rise in work people were improving and modernizing Piedmont everyday.
Cavour knew that he must improve Piedmont economically to make it stronger than Austria. Cavour also knew that Piedmont would need foreign help and to gain this he entered the Crimean War. Although this war drained the economy of Piedmont, they gained the gratitude of France and Britain, having these allies helped to secure the war with Austria. In order to compete with Austria Piedmont knew they must become a modernized state.
Overall it is clear to see that Piedmont had been modernized by 1859 as many changes had been made, economically and also socially. I believe Cavour played an important part in this process due to his ideas and clever thinking. Without Cavour many of these ideas would not have been developed and also may not have been funded. The majority of Cavour??™s ideas and inspiration came from the British way of living.

The First Law of Thermodynamics


The First Law: the concepts

The basic concepts
A system is the part of the world in which we have a special interest. It may be a reaction vessel, an engine, an electrochemical cell, and so on. Around the system is its surroundings, where we make our observations. The two parts may be in contact and are separated by a boundary, and specifying the system and its surroundings amounts to careful specification of the boundary between them. When matter can transfer through the boundary between system and its surroundings the system is open; otherwise it is closed. An isolated system is closed system that has neither mechanical nor thermal contact with its surroundings.

Work, heat, and energy
Work, heat, and energy are the basic concepts of thermodynamics, and of these the most fundamental is work. As we shall see, all measurements of heat and changes in energy amount to measurements of work.
Work is done during a process if that process could be used to move an object certain distance or to change its height. W = F x d = m g h (J).
We shall say that work is done by the system if a weight has been raised up in the surroundings and it is given a negative sign (-ve) and this work = – mgh (you may imagine your hand is the system which will raise certain weight). The work has been done on the system when a weight has been lowered down and it is given a positive sign (+ve) and this work = mgh. When we need to measure the amount of work we use its definition as force ? distance.
Energy is the capacity of a system to do work. When the energy of a system changes as result of a temperature difference between it and its surroundings we say that energy has been transferred as heat. When a beaker of water (the system) stands on hot plate, the capacity of the system to do work increases, so its energy has increased; since the increase has occurred as result of a temperature difference, that energy has been transferred to the system as heat.
Not all substances permit the transfer of energy even though there is a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings. Walls that do permit energy transfer as heat (such as steel and glass) are called diathermic (dia is the Greek word for “through). Walls that do not permit energy transfer as heat are called adiabatic. A Dewar flask is a good approximation to an adiabatic container.
A process that releases energy as heat is called exothermic. All combustion reactions are exothermic. Processes that absorb energy as heat are called endothermic. An example is the vaporization of water.

The First Law
From now on, we shall call the total energy of a system its internal energy U. It is impossible to know the absolute value of the internal energy of any system, but in thermodynamics we deal only with changes in the internal energy. We shall denote by ?U the change in internal energy when a system changes from an initial state (i) with internal energy Ui to a final state (f )with internal energy Uf is ?U = Uf – Ui
The internal energy is a state property in the sense that its value depends only on the current state of the system, and is independent of how that state has been prepared. Other examples of state properties are temperature, pressure, and density.
Path property which depends on the path as work w and heat q never written as ?w or ?q but dw and dq. The internal energy is also an extensive property, a property that depends on the size (extent) of the system. Thus, the internal energy of 2 kg of water is twice that of 1kg of water at the same temperature and pressure. Other examples of extensive properties include mass and volume. In contrast, the temperature of a system is an intensive property, for it is independent of the size of the system, and 2kg of water has the same temperature as 1kg of water taken from the same source. Other examples of intensive properties are the density, the pressure, and all molar quantities, such as the molar volume and the molar internal energy, the internal energy per mole.
Internal energy, heat, and work are all measured in the same unit, the joule (J), We shall normally express changes in internal energy in kilojoules, where 1kJ = 103 J and changes in molar internal energy in kJ mol-1.

The conservation of energy
Experiments have established two further characteristics of the internal energy. The first is that the internal energy of an isolated system is constant (no heat or work in or out). This observation is often summarized by the remark that ?energy conserved ?.
The second characteristic of internal energy is that whereas we may know how energy has been transferred the system is blind to the mode employed (only need initial and final states). Heat and work are equivalent ways of changing a systems energy: energy is energy; however it is gained or lost. A thermodynamic system is like a bank: it accepts deposits in either currency, but stores its reserves as internal energy.
These two characteristics of the internal energy are summarized in a statement called First Law of thermodynamics: ???The internal energy of a system is constant unless it is changed by doing work or by heating???.
If we write w for the work done on a system, q for the energy transferred as heat to it, and ?U for the resulting change in internal energy, the mathematical form of the First Law is
For infinitesimal changes in q and w, dU = dq + dw
This equation states that the change in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the energy that passes through its boundary as heat and work. If none passes through (when the system is isolated), then ?U = 0
Note: q as mentioned here represents only the transferred heat from system to surrounding or from surrounding to system and it does not represent the thermal energy content of the system. For example in compression adiabatic process the heat transferred q = 0, but there is an increase in temperature which will increase the thermal energy and the internal energy of that system.
Example: Calculating a change in internal energy
A certain electric motor produced 15 kJ of energy each second as mechanical work and lost 2 kJ as heat to the surroundings. What is the change in the internal energy of the motor and its power supply each second
Answer: Since energy is lost from the system as work, w is negative, and w = -15 kJ. Energy is also lost as heat, so q = -2 kJ. The total change in internal energy is therefore
?U = -2 kJ ??“ 15 kJ = -17 kJ
Comment: If we had decided to call the motor alone the system, then its internal energy would not have changed: the motor lost 17 kJ to the surroundings but the power supply did 17 kJ of work on the motor. The net loser is the power supply; the motor is a device that converts one form of energy into another.
When the work done on the system w is Positive, and if energy given to system & q is also positive. If the system does the work or heat loss, to surrounding w & q are both negative. The work in expansion process is negative and T decreases (if the process is not isothermal), and work in compression process is positive and T increases(if the process is not isothermal),.
Infinitesimal changes
We can open the way to powerful methods of calculation by switching attention to infinitesimal changes of state (such as infinitesimal changes in temperature) and infinitesimal changes in the internal energy dU. Then, if the work done on a system is the infinitesimal amount dw and the energy supplied to it as heat is dq, in place of ?U= q + w we have:
Area A
When a piston of area A moves out through a distance dz , it sweeps out a volume dV = Adz. The external pressure pex is equivalent to a weight pressing on the piston, and the force opposing expansion is F = pexA.

Work of compression and expansion
In thermodynamics we are often concerned with the work done on or by a system. This can be calculated by considering the arrangement shown in figure, in which one wall of a system is a massless, frictionless, rigid, perfectly fitting piston of area A. If the external pressure is pex, the force on the outer face of the piston is:
(pex A) pressing down on the system .
We shall suppose that the motion of the piston is quasistatic, or slow. Quasistatic motion ensures that the surroundings are in internal equilibrium. When the system expands quasistatically through a distance dz, it raises the weight pex A through a distance dz, so the work done is dw = – pex A ? dz.
The work done by a gas when it expands against a constant external pressure is equal to the shaded area in this indicator diagram.
But A dz is the volume swept out in the course of the expansion, which we write dV (dV in case of expansion is positive). Therefore, the work done when the system expands through dV against a constant pressure pex is: .
If instead the system is compressed, the work done on the system is given by the same equation but in compression dV is negative ( a reduction of volume) and so dw is positive.
Work is done on the system by compression and so long as no other energy changes take place, its internal energy rises.
Here we can come to important conclusion that the general form of work for either compression or expansion is:
Free expansion

Free expansion occurs when pex = 0, hence work = 0.
Which means that no work is done, and dw = 0 for each stage of the expansion.

Expansion against constant pressure
Since the external pressure pex is constant through the expansion (e.g., the piston is pressed on by the atmosphere of the outside world), the work done as the system passes quasistatically through each successive infinitesimal displacement dV is dw = – pex dV . The total work done in the expansion from Vi to Vf is the sum of all these equal contributions:
Therefore, writing the change in volume as ?V = Vf – Vi w = -pex ?V
This result is illustrated graphically in the figure above: the magnitude of w is equal to the area beneath the horizontal line at p = pex (which means p is constant) lying between the initial and final volumes.
Reversible expansion
A reversible change in thermodynamics is a change that can be reversed by an infinitesmal modification of a variable as for example if we have a cylinder contains gas and it is fitted with a piston and a pile of sand was put on the top of this piston to prevent the gas from expansion then the sand was removed particle by particle to allow the gas to expand reversibly. We say that for a reversible change a system is always in equilibrium with its surroundings.
Suppose the gas which is confined by the piston has an external pressure pex is set equal to the pressure of the confined gas p. Such as a system is in mechanical equilibrium with its surroundings, since an infinitesimal change in the external pressure in either direction causes changes in volume in opposite directions. If the external pressure is made infinitesimally less than the internal pressure (by removing some sand particles), the gas expands slightly and the gas pressure decreases to be equal to the external pressure. If the external pressure is increased infinitesimally (by adding some sand particles), gas is compressed slightly and hence its pressure increases. In either case the internal pressure changes to be equal to the external pressure at each step and this change is reversible in the thermodynamic sense.
To achieve reversible expansion (mechanical equilibrium) we must match pex to p at each stage: d w = -pex dV = -p dV
Although the pressure inside the system appears in this expression for the work, it does so only because pex has been set equal to p to ensure reversibility. The total work of reversible expansion is therefore . P here is for the gas inside the cylinder and we can evaluate the integral once we know how the pressure of the confined gas depends on its volume.
Reversible expansion may be summarized as follows:
1) It occurs by an infinitesimal changes.

2) Equilibrium between system & surrounding is established at each step.

3) Pex = Pinternal at each step and hence d w = -pex dV = -p dV.
4) Max work is obtained and equal = the area under the P
versus V curve which is a smooth one in case of reversible process only.

Isothermal reversible expansion
We shall illustrate the use of an equation of state to evaluate the work by considering the isothermal reversible expansion of a perfect gas. The expansion is made isothermal by keeping the system in thermal contact with the surroundings (such as a constant temperature bath). Since the equation of state is pV = nRT, we know that at each stage p = nRT/V, with V the current volume. The temperature T is constant in an isothermal expansion, and so may be taken outside the integral. It follows that:
dw = -pexdV = -p dV (for reversible process Pex = P)
, p = nRT/V and hence

w = -nRT ln (Vf/Vi), for Isothermal Reversible Expansion or Compression

When the final volume is greater than the initial volume, as in an expansion, the logarithm in the last equation is positive and hence w < 0. In this case, the system has done work on the outside world. We obtain more work when the expansion is reversible because matching the external pressure to the internal pressure at each stage ensures that none of the systems pushing power is wasted. We cannot obtain more work than the reversible amount because increasing the external pressure even infinitesimal results in contraction. Example: Calculating the work of gas production Calculate the work done when 50g of iron reacts with hydrochloric acid in (a) a closed vessel of fixed volume, (b) an open beaker at 25?°C. Answer. In (a) the volume cannot change, so no work is done (dV = 0) and w = 0. In (b) the gas drives back the atmosphere ( constant pressure) and therefore Pex =P = constant and and hence w = -pex ?V. We can neglect the initial volume because the final volume (after the production of gas) is so much larger and ?V = Vf - Vi ? Vf = nRT/pex where n is the amount of H2 produced. Therefore, w= - n R T This equation is applied to calculate the work when solid or liquid produces gas at constant pressure as in this example and as in the case of vaporization process. Since the reaction is Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) > FeCl2(aq) + H2(g), i.e. 1 mol H2(g) is generated when 1 mol Fe(s) is consumed, and n can therefore be taken as amount of Fe atoms that react. Since the molar mass of Fe is 55.85g mol-1,
The system,(the reaction mixture), does 2.2 kJ of work driving back the atmosphere.
Heat and enthalpy
In general, the change in internal energy of a system is dU = dq + dw, and if we put dw = dwexp + dwe , which means that the work consists of expansion work dwexp plus any other additional type of work except expansion dwe, hence:
dU = dq + dwexp + dwe. For instance, dwe might be the electrical work of driving a current through a circuit. A system kept at constant volume can do no expansion work, and so dwexp= 0. If the system is also incapable of doing any other kind of work, dwe= 0 too. Under these circumstances:
dU = dq at constant volume, no additional work.
We express this by writing dU = dqV. Hence, in measuring the energy supplied to a constant-volume system as heat (q>0) or obtained from it (q