The Final Chapter

Harry Potter and the Final Chapter
From a Fan??™s Point of View
By Lisa LeDuc

Friday, December 22nd, 2006

Today for me was a very different day. Not so much special, even though it was, but very, very different. Along with the rest of the Potterverse I avidly clicked on the door and the wind chimes to reveal Jo??™s gift to her fans. A simple game of hangman spelled out the long-awaited title to the last book, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Like the rest of the world I was ecstatic to receive the title that I??™d spent many hours guessing and weeks looking forward to. It came in a truly Jo way, without fanfare and in a way that would ensure that the fans would get it first and not just any old journalist trawling cyberspace looking for something newsworthy. Only the truly dedicated would have worked out that puzzle. I have to admit I did a happy dance when I read it. I sat hungrily down, ready to analyze every possible meaning of the two simple words, when something very real and very heavy hit me. That was it. The last time I would ever wait eagerly to find out the title to a Harry Potter book. No more guessing, no more theorizing. It was for me the first page in the final chapter of the entire Harry Potter series.

Once I had the title, I sat trying to figure out exactly what could have been meant by Deathly Hallows. I felt that it read differently than the others. Even without having read the books anyone could surmise that Harry Potter and the Philosopher??™s Stone, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire and Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix were possibly about items or groups of some kind and that Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince were about people. But how does one begin to imagine what Deathly Hallows are All the waiting to finally hear the name of the book, so sure that it would be a clue, only to not even know if what the title describes has a physical existence. Still, I cherished this time to ponder as I realised that never again will the quest for a Harry Potter title take us past The Toenail of Ickilbogg to the Pillars of Storge in search of the Mystical Kettle of Knackledirk. Every generation of Harry Potter readers after us will miss out on these wonderful searches; miss out on having to wait two years before discovering what fate awaits our hero between the covers of the next eagerly awaited book. If my kids want to read J.K. Rowling??™s beloved series they could reasonably do so in a week, book one through book seven, and to me that would take away some of the magic. For the fans who have had to read the latest book and then wait, letting their minds agonise over what will happen next, these books have lasted a very long time.

Over the past ten years fans have watched Harry grow up slowly, as they would their own children or even their siblings. To many he is more than just a fictional character; he is as much a member of their family as their own flesh and blood. Would anyone have grown as attached to Harry if they could have read from his parents??™ murder straight through to the final outcome in a single week To some maybe, but for the majority, probably not. Sure, the books would have been a great read, fantastic even. But I just feel that they would have lost some of their magic. Really how concerned can someone be about a character who they only met a week ago Every time a Harry Potter book ends, Harry??™s fate hangs in the balance. In desperation for answers we reread the books, and every single reread uncovers details that were missed the first time; little details that let us get to know the trio as intimately as we know our own friends. Then, when we can drain no more from the pages, we turn to fellow Potterheads online and in person to listen to their theories and voice our own. The Harry Potter books have united millions of people; everyone reading the books at the same time, making the discoveries as they happen, as though we are all watching the life of a real live person. It is a community ??“ no, a family ??“ linked by the common member of Harry. Reading his adventures is like watching a family member grow. The sweet torture that we all go through every time someone spots something new that may be the key to the last book, every online debate of whether or not Snape is truly evil, and every verbal battle over just how unforgivable the Unforgivable Curses are. I, for one, shall miss that.

The outlet of creativity that Jo??™s writing has inspired is astronomical. Just think of the theories that have come up: Is Harry a Horcrux Was Neville under a memory charm Some of these theories are so well written that they are book worthy by themselves! Many people would never have written something so complex had it not been for her books. I cannot help but find that staggering. What will happen to that creativity once the final book is published Surely the fan fiction will continue, but it will subtly change, as it did when Dumbledore died. The possibilities become more limited, the thirst to know how it all ends diminished. That is why I find the release of this title so sad. It??™s the first step of everything we know coming to an end; the first step in the book release parade. Next will come the cover art, then the actual publishing of the book, and after that, it??™s over. After the glorious spectre of the colourful guesses and theories has passed all that will be left is the wind blowing around a few sheets of paper. Sure there will be the Half-Blood Prince and Deathly Hallows films still to look forward to, but we already know what happens in those. Ask any self-proclaimed Potterhead if they are more anxious for the fifth film or the seventh book and I think I can guess the answer without ever setting foot in a Divination class.

Though it??™s a sad time, this is still a moment in history we should all treasure. The last time the English speaking world become so hooked on waiting for a literary instalment was probably when Charles Dickens was writing his The Pickwick Papers serial way back in 1836. Eagerly the Victorians would wait for the next segment, the next plot line to unfold. The frenzy that Papers produced more than doubled the sales of the newspaper that it was published in. Fans used to write their own fiction while they waited for the segments to be released, and they only had to wait for a month! It has always been defined as a unique moment in history. Had the Victorians been able to access to the global communications network that we have today, this Dickens fan-frenzy might have resembled our current Rowling-obsession. Like our counterparts of 150 years ago we are living in an era which will be forever considered magical. Just as we cannot go back to 1836 to witness the final instalment of The Pickwick Papers, future readers will never be able to return to 2007 to witness what we are witnessing now. In 150 years, people will look back and marvel at the experience that we are having and wish wistfully that they too could have experienced the joys and heartbreak being felt by us all today. Not (like Dickens) in just the English speaking world, but worldwide.

While I feel privileged to be alive in such a time, I lament that the books will end and I hope against hope that the varied and colourful Potterverse as we know it will not fade totally into a dry and barren wilderness where only the few deluded, obsessed fans remain; a fate that has sadly befallen many fandoms. I will cling to the hope that next Christmas will not be the last Christmas that we??™ll hear the festive filks and that the messages boards will continue to contain deeper comments than just ???I like that chapter.??? But for now I shall try to put this sadness to one side and enjoy the limited number of days left of the delicious agony that reside in the space where Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows shall soon fill, because I am one of the lucky ones. I get the chance to feel this agony.


Art essay
The inclusion of technology in the visual arts is significant as it has allowed many issues to come into play. These include the relationship between the natural and artificial, the use of medicine in saving lives and cloning . By mirroring the information technologies which have become a necessity to our contemporary society a non-traditional approach to art is created.

In restless the audiences first impression is shock. The soft, baby like skin combined with the features of a platypus or rhinoceros pull at the maternal strings. The exploration of personal issues reflects the contrast between the artificial and natural, through use of such technologies as colour manipulated technology and digital media. The idea behind this work is the first synthetic organism being made from cloning and the potential link with saving lives. The development of this artwork reflects the debate of current, new and perhaps ???frightening??? developments in medical science. This therefore allows the audience to question the ethics in the new technologies of society.

Protein lattice is also quiet confronting to the audience. The image of a hairless rat with an ear protruding form its side is paired with a beautiful women. Is this a model with the new fashion accessory of the future The comment being made is the freakishness of each component. The model canvases the perfection and commercialism of society while the rat is similarly fake. The idea of the rat originates from the farming of a labatory rat for plastic surgery, this links with the model and the artificial nature of contemporary society. All of Piccinini works have a slick finish and an idea or concept behind them.

The dichotomy between the beautiful and menacing is a key theme in Piccinini work through use of sculpture also, Piccini??™s LUMPs are new abstract forms of art. Piccinis art practice is also unique . Piccinini creates large scale installations accompanied by sound effects as well as machine-like technological forms. An example of a large sculpture is the young family, showing a human like dog and puppies, which also pull at the maternal strings. The technological intervention in the art practice brings a new shocking element to the art that demands an emotional response from the audience.

Other technologies that are mirrored in her artworks include genetically modified food and genetic engineering. The use of the computer in her artworks is an appropriate tool in commenting on modern day society. The statements Piccinini makes such as the consequences of technological change are reflected in all of her artworks. By doing this the inclusion of technology in the visual arts is significant as it enables the visual arts to mirror the information technologies which have become a necessity to contemporary society.

The Film

The film I am reviewing today is called ???the spy next door??™. The main character of this film is called Bob Ho aqa Jackie Chan. In this film bob is a secret disgusted spy as a pen maker but is working for the CSI. Bob has only one mission left before he retires and goes and lives a normal life with his new girlfriend and her three children. He captures the evil villain who is trying to get rid of all the oil supply in the world by making a chemical that eats oil. But while the villain is getting transported into prison he escapes. Bob has left the CSI and therefore says it is not his problem.
Bob takes care of his girlfriends Gillian children while she is called out of town. Bob see this as a chance to prove himself as being a good farther to the children because the children think he is boring and doesn??™t have a life. While bob takes on the challenges that the kid though at him, Ian the 2nd oldest child downloads a secret CSI file on his mp3 that tells the Russian Terrorist the whereabouts of bob.
The Russian decide to give bob a visit and try to kill him, luckily he gets away with the children but his secret comes out. The oldest child tells her mom that has gone out of town that his a spy and this causes their relationship to fall apart. Gillian and her children decides to leave bob as she does not understand that he has already retired, to live a normal life with her. All the children felt sorry for bob and started to like him as he was a spy but Gillian was not impressed.
Bob goes to the Russian secret hide out to sort things out but gets captured as the villain captured ian. They are placed on two chairs while they are questioned on whereabouts of the file. Bob doesn??™t have a clue what they are talking about but Ian does and therefore tells them the file is in his mp3 at home. The Russian terrorist rush to his house but luckily bob uses one of his gadgets and gets there before the villain. Bob quickly explains to Gillian that they are coming and they hide the mp3. Bob goes face to face with the villain and the terrorist and puts the villain back into prison and gets back together with Gillian.
I recommend this film because the plot is very interesting and complex as there as lots of twist in the story. This keeps you engages for a long time. Furthermore there is a lot of mood change in this film from comedy and tension
In my personal opinion this is a good film and I will give it 7 out of 10, thank you

United States Under Seige

States Under Seige”2001?9?11?,

 September 11, 2001 will be a day forever
etched in the minds of all Americans. On this day the United States came under
attack by terrorists, from other countries, who crashed two planes into New
York?s trade Center. Shortly before 9:00 a.m., one plane crashed into the North
tower of the World Trade Center. Minutes later a second plane crashed into the
South tower. Not too long aster the first two crashes, other members of this
terrorist group crashed another plane into the Pentagon and another into an
open field in Pennsylvania.

 Eventually about an hour after the attack the
South tower collapsed and half an hour later, the North tower collapsed.
However the Pentagon did not collapse, but one of its five sides was destroyed.
Within one hour of the attacks, the federal government shut down national
landmarks across the country, and the FDA ordered that all traffic systems
nationwide be shut down. Military bases nationwide were placed on high alert.
The attack affected small town America. Here in Little Rock local malls closed,
the TCBY Tower was evacuated, Local airports were shut down and local schools
added more security on their campuses. Security was increased at all federal,
local, and state agencies.

 However, throughout the destruction,
devastation, and the loss of lives, patriotism is strong. Americans are wearing
t-shirts, pins, buttons or hat with the American flag on it. The horrible
terrorist act that was meant to destroy Americans faith, unity and lives has
brought Americans together as one nation. At the time that the bombing
occurred, I was at work checking the bags of all the kids that had just come
in. I remember Rena (one of my co-workers) coming in to tell us that terrorist
had just hit the WTC. At the time, my mind was wrapped up in what I was doing
that I didnt really pay her that much attention. My reaction was like Oh,
really. Fifteen minutes later as I got ready to leave to come to class, I
noticed that the T.V. in the big room was turned to the bombing.

At that point,
I took a minute to sit down see what had really happened. After I had actually
heard and seen it on T.V, I really didnt have a reaction. It was like I was
lost and didnt really understand. It didnt register in my mind until after I
had left school and went back to work. When I returned to work everyone was
terrified. Throughout the day they kept the TV tuned to a local news station.
While everyone was worried I was patient. I didn™t have a strong reaction
towards the crash because about a year ago when the school shootings occurred,
I remember being in Sunday school and discussing it. One thing that Pastor
Forte told us was that just because something severe has happened it doesn™t
mean that we should at once become scared by the situation at hand because
people die everyday of AIDS, cancer, car accidents, and drug overdose.?

One employee at
my job stated: When I first heard of the WTC bombing I went into shock. I could
not believe what I had heard. As the day went on I felt fear. For weeks and
sometimes now, I am scared for myself and everyone in the world. I don™t think
my life will ever be the same again. Right now I pray more for myself and
everyone else (McClendon). As I made my way back on campus, I noticed that some
professors had canceled classes in fear that the foreigners would attack us. I
also noticed that a lot of students of different backgrounds (especially Middle
Eastern) did not attend classes. To keep things running smoothly Chancellor
Hathaway sent out e-mails encouraging everyone on campus to stay on task and
continue with normal activities. Hathaway felt it was important to make a
statement to help keep the campus focused. Everyone responded well and no event
of any nature occurred (Keller). Students who needed assistance could get
counseling through the health services and the disability support services.
According to the Admissions and Records office, at least three Middle Eastern
students withdrawn from UALR after the terrorist attacks on America (Keller 1).
Friday, September 14, 2001 was National Day of Prayer and Remembrance. ?

This day
brought more than 1000 UALR students, faculty, and staff together. Many were
wearing red, white, and blue ribbons (Bayles). This incident has not affected
my life emotionally because for one I don™t know anyone that may have been hurt
in it. Also I have God in my life, and I know that as long as I keep him by my
side, he will protect me from any harm or danger. This has not affected my
family either, but I do have a close friend who is in the army, and he may have
to go if he is called. It affects him in the sense that he may not be able to
come home for the holidays. I wouldn™t say that this would affect my job, but
it could; if people get laid off and can™t afford to pay for childcare then I
won™t have a job.-M

Piccinini and the Use of Technology in the Arts

Piccinini and Her Use of Technology.

???The inclusion of technology in the visual arts is significant as it enables the visual arts to mirror the information technologies which have become a necessity to contemporary society.???

In this modern world, technology has become ubiquitous. It is quintessential to the smooth running of our society. It has also become very significant in the contemporary visual arts world. It enables the visual arts to mirror the technological world, allowing it to make statements in new ways about this new age.

The inclusion of technology has enabled artists to evoke new kinds of emotions and reactions from their audiences. One artist that has fully embraced the use of technology is Patricia Piccinini. By using technology she tries to evoke a range of emotions by creating creatures reminiscent of animal embryos. One example of her doing this is in her piece ???Restless??? (2000). This piece is a coloured photograph of some form of new born animal, with smooth, furless skin and resemblance of a platypus or rhinoceros body sitting in a car. At first glance one might feel afraid or disgusted by this creature. However, Piccinini??™s placement of the creature in the car, the relaxed pose of the driver and the view point through the open car door all influence the audience to reconsider their first reaction and come to realise that even with its deformed figure, this creature is actually quite cute, sitting there like a family dog would. Through the use of technology Piccinini has created this animal, exploring new ways to evoke new and conflicting emotions.

Piccinini stated that ???she tries in her art to connect to and reflect on something of our times and what is happening in them.??? Such as societies increasing need for perfection, particularly in the advertising world. This perfection is often achieved through computer manipulation of photos. Piccinini reflects this in such works as ???Porcelain Lattice??? (1997). In which a portrait shot of a woman is taken and edited to the nth degree creating a freakishly perfect figure. The flawlessness Piccinini has instilled on this woman reflects her tendencies for precision, creating a slickness to her art. However, there??™s a twist. Sitting idly on the woman??™s shoulder is a beady eyed hairless rat, added to the photo through computer manipulation. On this hairless rat is an ear growing out of its back. The audience is left to wonder ???Is this a pet of the future A possible fashion accessory??? This rat is in fact a real scientific experiment, used to host human organs that will one day possibly be used for plastic surgery on a commercial basis. The reason she placed this rat in this picture is to reflect on the increasing cosmetic way of life, perhaps brought on by this wave of perfection in advertising. To emphasize the idea of the perfection in advertisement, Piccinini blew this portrait up to billboard size and placed it on a city building. With so much of the world surrounding technology, the arts are now about to keep up with, and make statements about this new technological age with the inclusion of technology.

With the use of technology things can be made to look realistic, therefore far more effective. For instance using materials that are technologically designed to feel like animal or human skin can create a very real and off-putting effect. As apposed to using clay or rock which can create a very smooth and a pleasant tactile feel. The use of these skin-like materials also creates a 3D form, just as in any sculpture. This also increases the effect by making it look even more life like. A particular artwork Piccinini uses such materials in is ???The Young Family??? (2002). At first The Young Family just looks like a litter of dogs with their mother. However if you look more closely you can see the dogs also have human features. The use of a real situation makes this piece even more confronting. Stories such as The Hulk or Jekyll and Hyde are considered purely fiction as scientists did not have the technology to achieve such transformations, however with the increasing ability for cloning and mutations etc, pieces like The Young Family become much more relevant and believable, especially with the use of 3D and skin-like materials. With Piccinini??™s inclusion of technology, she has enabled her art to take on a whole new level of realism.

With this new technological age, visual arts has been able to further expand its horizons, enabling new ways of evoking emotions and reactions, making a statement about a modern issue in a modern way and new ways to make a piece more believable and effective. The inclusion of technology enables visual arts to mirror the discoveries, advantages, disadvantages of this new world now dependant on technology.

The Fight in Afghanistan, the Fight for Humanity

Nick Hage

Mrs. Bowmer 7th


The Fight in Afghanistan, the Fight for Humanity

9-11 was one of the worst terrorist attacks in U.S. history, but it was much more than that. It was because of this act of aggression against America that instigated the war in Afghanistan. It was because of this that the Taliban no longer govern the country. It was because of this that we??™re still their today fighting against those who want us dead. 9-11 was only the beginning. Those terrorists are still their today and they still strike at us, it is for this reason that we should stay there. Even though some people believe it is a waste of money and lives, we should stay in Afghanistan until they can sufficiently defend themselves because we should save every life we can and dangerous terrorists hide there.

Afghanistan is a land of hostility and animosity, it always has been. It is because of this aggressive history that allowed a terrorist network to flourish. It is not however the government of Afghanistan that is responsible for the despicable acts, but rather for giving sanctuary to those who committed them. When they refused to surrender the terrorist organization we entered Afghanistan looking for them, the Taliban was not pleased. They fought us and we fought back, and in the end the Taliban??™s ruthless regime was ended. That was nine years, today they fight us in a guerilla campaign waiting until they can again take control. While Hamid Karzai, the president of Afghanistan, had been accused of corruption and was quite unpopular, the progress Afghanistan has made is quite impressive and the national army has proven themselves in combat.

The Taliban??™s regime was ruthless and they are well known for enforcing ludicrous laws especially those involving women. Women during Taliban rule were not allowed to attend school, they were not allowed to be outside without a male member of the family, they were forced to wear a full body dress at all times they weren??™t even allowed to have jobs save for the medical area. Taliban religious police walked the streets and would beat any woman not following these laws. Many were even executed publically. The treatment had been described ???the worst human rights disaster in history??? by Noah Berlatsky in ???The United States Must Stay in Afghanistan to Fight for Womens Rights.???

It is true the conflict has been costly to the United States and it has cost the lives of soldiers. A possible solution would be to cut back on the surge of troops we have been sending over. Or maybe we can even start bringing troops back.

However even though our soldiers are dying for people on the other side of the world who don??™t look to favorably upon us, it is our duty to do so. If we pull out now we leave that nation vulnerable to attack, which will then lead to terrorists gaining a stronger foothold. Even though the people in Afghanistan aren??™t our people they are still people. And the moment we stop fighting for other people is the moment we stop fighting for our humanity.

Works Cited

Berlatsky, Noah. ???Afghan Security Forces Must Be Made Ready to Take over Military Responsibilities.??? Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Gale Group, 30 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

Carafano, James Jay. ???The U.S. should stay in Afghanistan.??? Editorial. Star-Telegram. McClatchy Tribune News Service, 21 Aug. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

Cocco, Marie. ???Why we Must Stay in Afghanistan.??? Editorial. Real Clear Politics. Washington Post Writers Group, 1 Sept. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. ???Stay in Afghanistan Theres no Other Choice.??? Editorial. Christianity Today 8 Sept. 2010: 1. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

Kemp, Richard. ???Afghanistan – The Great Debate: Should we stay ..or should we go??? Mirror News 11 July 2009: n. pag. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

Williams, Michael. ???Price is high, but we should stay in Afghanistan.??? Editorial. The Scotsman 10 June 2008: 1. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .

The Field Mouse Analysis

?Compare and contrast how the poems use language to convey their thoughts and feelings.

In this essay, I am going to compare and contrast how two poems, The Field Mouse by Gillian Clarke and Dulce et Decorum est by Wilfred Owen, use language to convey thoughts and feelings. I have chosen these two poems to compare as they are both about the harsh realities of war and mans destructive side.

This poem, inspired by the 1990s Bosnian crisis, emphasised the fragility of all life and mans destructive nature. The title of the poem refers to a field mouse which receives a fatal injury during the spring hay-cutting. Gillian Clarke compares the mouse to children, their bones brittle as mouse-ribs , and throughout the poem, there are echoes of conflict, pain, and death as references to the Bosnian war: snare drum, jets, terrible news, killed flowers, agony, Summer in Europe, the field??™s hurt, and many other examples. The title of the poem is an unlikely title for a poem about war and so the subject matter takes its reader by surprise forcing them to look more deeply for the message of mans destructive nature that is being conveyed though the poem.

In the first stanza, a traditional British summer harvest scene is created. Gillian Clarke uses a lot of assonance and internal rhyming words in this verse: summer, drum, hums, end, meadow, terrible, drifting, gift, and there are also more hints of the destructive message at work with the humming jets and radios terrible news.

In the second stanza, the destruction is no longer at the edge of the scene but part of the scene itself: the fields hurt, children kneel in long grass, staring at what we have crushed refers literally to the injured field-mouse, but we are reminded of the death-littered streets and towns of Bosnia and its surrounds, as well as the never-to-be-forgotten battlefields of World Wars I and II. The use of the pronoun we in the last line of that stanza causes the reader to share in some of the guilt.

The final stanza leads away from the harvest scene and guilt becomes even more consuming: the field lies bleeding , The wrong that woke from a rumour of pain wont heal, and we cant face the newspapers. This is a direct reference to the situation in Eastern Europe and how they cannot face the news stories on the radio and newspapers and how bosnia will remain ignorant to the rest of the world. the phrase my neighbour turned stranger refers to the fearful though of their own neighbours turning against them.

Piagets Theory

I. Introduction Nikita is six year old, and she is at Piaget??™s preoperational stage. According to Piaget??™s description of the preoperational stage children, they cannot understand his conservation tasks. This preoperational stage, ???children can use representations (mental images, drawings, words, gestures) rather than just motor actions to think about objects and events. Thinking now is faster, more flexible and efficient, and more socially shared. Thinking is limited by egocentrism, a focus on perceptual states, reliance on appearances rather than underlying realities, and rigidity (lack of reversibility)??? . The young children do not have abilities to have ???operations mental actions that obey logical rules. Instead, their thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment??? .

According to Piagetian conservation tasks, preoperational stage: 2-7 years old children lacked the knowledge to conserve. Conservation means, ??? the understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes??? . Piaget??™s test for conservation of number is described as two rows with same number of things (examples: coins, fruits, and candies that are equally spaced. Initially, young children knew these two rows had same number. If one row is shortened, children failed to notice that the two rows are the same. Piaget said young children did not realize these two rows are still the same number because they confused and did not see what adults see that help them to understand the task. Piaget said the ability to understand this task is ??? in the face of a perceptual change,??? and the ???young child tends to be fooled by the misleading perceptual appearance??? . On the Piaget??™s task for conservation of length, he described this task as showing young children the two pencils, two pens, or two sticks with the equal length and children knew they were the same length. If showed them by moving one stick longer than the other one, they failed to know they were the same. Then Piaget??™s task for conservation for liquid, he described this task as showing young children the same amount of water or juice in the two identical glasses and very fast they knew the two glasses of water or juice were the same. If poured one glass into a longer and thinner glass, children could not identify this glass had contained the same amount of water or juice as the original two identical glasses.

According to Piaget??™s explanation, children??™s thinking is ???perception bound??? in preoperational stage and also they could not focus their attention on two aspects of the new glass, they were attentive only to one aspect which is that one glass is taller than the other two; they did not realize the taller glass had the same amount of liquid.

II. Subject and Method My subject is a six year-old girl named Nikita. She was born in California. She attends a public elementary school .She is an only child of Indian parents . I have known her since she was a baby. On this weekend,I invited her to come to my house, so I could talk to her . Since I knew she knew how to count and knew she had good memory, I decided to test Nikita on Piagets conservation tasks. Nikita was also very interested because she loved to play with me.

III. Procedures My modifications in Piaget??™s conservation tasks are as follow: first, I had Nikita??™s full attention to what I was doing at each step because when Piaget did his conservation tasks, he was not aware of whether the child??™s attention was focused on his directions and his explanations of the tasks . Second, to have Nikita??™s attention on what I was going to show her, I needed to make Nikita interested in the tasks. I believe young children like Nikita need to be given tangible rewards. I used these tasks as some types of rewards Nikita could take home with her after she did the tasks with me. Third, Nikita needed to have easy numerical concepts, so she could understand when I showed her the measurement of the tasks. And the last modification, I had Nikita experienced these tasks with me. I had her felt the tasks by touch and do the tasks with me. Thus, young children need hands on experience with these tasks, so they can think more logically as they follow the processes.
Conservation of Number: I followed Piaget??™s conservation of number task first with Nikita and without using my modifications, and of course Nikita gave a wrong answer. She did not pay attention to me at all and she was curious about why I showed her the task and her mind was wandering off somewhere. I could not get her to focus on the tasks at all. Referring to Piaget??™s experiment, I set two rows of five buttons each in visual one-to-one correspondence, with one of the two equal-length rows placed directly above the other and have Nikita agreed the two rows did have the equal-length. After that I moved the first row to look longer than the second row, Nikita did not notice I had moved the first row. She saw only the first row now longer than the second row therefore she concluded that the first row has more buttons than the second row. Piaget would explain Nikita in preoperational stage, ???tends to fooled by the misleading perceptual appearance, judging that the longer row now contains more??? and that is why Nikita failed the conservation of number .

Conservation of Liquid: In conservation of liquid, I also started with Piaget??™s experience, Nikita first agreed that two identical glasses contain the same amounts of water, and then I poured water from one glass into the taller and thinner glass, with Nikita watching, and then asked Nikita whether the two amounts of water are still the same, or whether one glass now contains more water than the other. In this experiment, Nikita said that the taller and thinner glass contains more water than the other one. According to Piaget, children at this preoperational stage could not understand conservation of liquid, they only see the taller and thinner glass ???looks like it has more, and accept things as they seem to be??? .

IV. Results To modify this conservation of number, I chose to use candy for this task because is more fun and interest for Nikita. She loves M&M candies. For this task, I had Nikita sit close to the table so she could see me set up two rows of M&M candies, and hear me count loudly each row that had seven pieces of candies on the table. When I first showed Nikita, I put both the numbers of candies and the lengths of the two rows equaled. I ask Nikita to tell me if the two rows had the same amount of candies, and she told me these two rows were the same. She showed me by counting each row correctly, like this, ???one, two, three, four, five, six, seven,??? and I told her to touch each candy as she counted, and she did the same to the second row. Then I mixed the candies and I ask her to imitate what I did last time. Nikita did the two rows with equal amount of the candies because she remembered each row had seven candies. Again I ask her to look at the candies in these two rows if they were the same, and again she told me they were the same. Then I set up another set of candies with the same amount that I did with the first set. I asked Nikita if I had the same two rows as her and she told me, ???yes!??? I showed her by moving the first row of candies further apart from each piece and ask her to do the same with the first row she had and told her to count the candies in each row. She had counted them correctly. After that, I ask her the same question again and her answer is ???they are the same.???
To modify this conservation of liquid, I had Nikita help me mix the colored fruit juice and pour into the two exactly alike glasses. Nikita was so happy that she learned to make juice, and she was very interest in the changed color of the water. Again I tried to have Nikita??™s interest, so she could focus on this task. I used a measuring cup to have Nikita identify the numbers two on the cup so the two glasses had the same amount of juice and pour into them. I asked her if these two glasses had same amount of color fruit juice and her answer was ???yes, there are the same.??? Then I asked her to help me pour the juice from one glass to the taller and thinner glass before that I had her measure the juice and it showed on number two. I ask her the question again, and she knew immediately the taller and thinner glass has the same amount of juice as the one that looked smaller
. V. Conclusion In conclusion, Piaget would still consider Nikita is young to successfully accomplish his conservation tasks. But in my modification, I show that we significantly improve on Nikita??™s ability to do the task correctly. Nikita??™s attention, understanding the concept of numbers and the hands on experiences on the tasks made her realize that the outside appearances changed did not mean the change of the tasks. Based on the experiments, young children like Nikita (preoperational stage) do conserve the number and do conserve the liquid very early in life contrary to the Piaget??™s theory of stages and his tasks.

The Federal Reserve

Money and the Federal Reserve
Jennifer Becker
Leander Woods

Money and the Federal Reserve
Nothing in live is free. When you go into a store with the intention of obtaining a new pair of shoes, the sales clerk working at the counter will be expecting money in return. Money is society??™s form of exchange for goods and services. Before money was introduced as a form of exchange, the bartering system was used. In the bartering system, one good or service is exchanged for another. This system however, would be too difficult in today??™s economy with so many different types of goods and services.
Money is defined as ???the set of assets in an economy that people regularly use to buy goods and services from other people??? (Mankiw,? 2007,? p.? 642). Money has three functions in the economy: it is used as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value. As in the shoe store example, money is used to exchange for a desired good or service. Money is also used to measure economic value and record debt. Finally, money is used as a transfer of purchasing power from the buyer to the seller. When purchasing that pair of shoes, you are giving up your money in exchange for the item therefore transferring the purchasing power to the store owner. Banks also play an important role in the monetary system.
The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States. Created in 1913, The Federal Reserve, or the Fed, oversees the banking system and controls the amount of money in circulation. The Fed is managed by the board of governors, consisting of seven members selected by the president to a fourteen year term. The chairman is the head to the board of governors but unlike the board members, the chairman??™s term is only four years. The Federal Reserve Board is located in Washington D.C. and twelve other Federal Reserve Banks are located in major cities around the country. The Fed controls the quantity of money in circulation by the purchase and sale of US bonds to increase money supply, and the selling of government bonds in the nation??™s bond markets to decrease the supply. Reserve requirements also exist to help regulate money supply. These requirements determine the amount of reserves that banks must hold. For example, when the reserve ratio is increased, the banks are required to hold onto more money and can loan less out. The banks themselves will occasionally need to borrow money if their reserve levels are too low to meet the reserve requirements, so in this situation the Fed will step in and loan the banks money at a low interest rate.
The Federal Reserve has been especially concerned recently in the stabilization of the money supply. In his monetary report to Congress, the current chairman of the board of governors, Ben Bernake (2010) addressed current monetary polices and their effects:
The Federal Reserve continued to support the functioning of financial markets and promote recovery in economic activity using a wide array of tools. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) maintained a target range of 0? to 1/4? percent for the federal funds rate throughout the second half of 2009 and early 2010 and indicated that economic conditions were likely to warrant exceptionally low levels of the federal funds rate for an extended period. Further, the Federal Reserve continued its purchases of Treasury securities, agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and agency debt in order to provide support to mortgage and housing markets and to improve overall conditions in private credit markets. (para. 9)
For the purpose of putting a downward pressure on short term interest rates and therefore increasing the money supply, the Fed is continuing to purchase Treasury securities. Money supply is also increased by the low discount rates applied to the financial institutions that were in need of borrowing extra funds. This injection of money into the economy and lowering of interest rates may help restore consumer confidence and therefore stimulate the economy, but what does this mean for employment As more consumers return to the market, demand for goods and services will rise and so will inflation. The Phillips curve shows that there is a trade-off between inflation and unemployment. When unemployment is high (as it is today) inflation is low but as inflation rises, unemployment lowers. In conclusion, the monetary policy of increasing money supply is positive for economic recovery as inflation is sure to rise and unemployment should lower.
Money is a necessary medium of exchange for goods and services. The amount of money circulating in the economy has an effect on its value. When too much money is in circulation, the money value depreciates. Conversely, if money is in more limited supply, its value appreciates. The Federal Reserve or, the Fed is the central bank of the United States. The Fed controls the money supply by the purchase and sale of bonds, the reserve requirements for the banks, and the discount rate at which the Fed gives loans as a last resort to financial institutions in trouble. These monetary policies can affect economic stability and the unemployment rate.

Bernake, B.? (2010).? Monetary Report to the Congress.? Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.? Retrieved from
Mankiw, G. (2007). Principles of economics, 4e. Retrieved from

Piaget Experimentz

Piaget Worksheet

Directions: Review Module 26 of Psychology and Your Life. Complete the matrix below and answer the questions that follow.

Cognitive Stage Age Range Major Characteristics
Sensorimotor Birth??“2 years Growth of object permanence,
Growth of motor skills, diminutive or no capability for figurative symbol
Preoperational 2??“7 years Growth of language and
figurative thoughts, egocentric judgment
Concrete operational
mastery 7??“12 years Growth of preservation,
of idea of reversibility
Formal operational 12 years??“adulthood Growth of rational and theoretical thinking
Pine-Sol versus Clorox
Pauleen Smith
January 30, 2011
Tomika Palmer

Pine-Sol versus Clorox

The theory tested on January 21, 2011Pine-Sol and Clorox bleach although this test was not recommended by professionals. Natural curious side wanted to see what the results were. Before conducting this unhealthy test, the research began through many websites and the MSDS data for chemical reactions. Pine-Sol and Bleach does not react against each other but Clorox can be annoying to the sense of smell. Clorox bleach does not react with many organic materials, which can release more chlorine than the remaining substance within the mixtures. Individuals should never mix two chemicals together when they have not fully read the materials within the MSDS data. Chlorine bleach and other chemicals are optional in creating a cleaning mixture.
This has been said to have extremely toxic gases. What were not taken into consideration at the time of this experiment were the after effects. Professionals state {???Chlorine bleach solutions are excellent disinfectants but are poor cleaners. They are deficient in cleaning, the response to additional elements generate poisonous vapors. It produces objectionable stench, assaulting tough shells, fading threads in painted exteriors. This can be harmful to floorboards polish. It consumes potency quickly and, is high priced when applied.???} (McFadden, n.d.). The McFadden (n.d.) website McFadden (n.d.), (Disadvantages of Using Chlorine Bleach, para. 5).The research conducted in comparison with the research that professionals employ is methodical techniques in accomplishing reports as well as investigation in scientific studying.
Fundamental procedures representing the accomplishment within science of the mind includes exploration entails raising inquiries, scheming research, collecting data, examining outcomes, realization of closing stages, distribution of the conclusions. The research within the web pages assisted to an extinct. The data collected and the examinations presented the realization that it is only safe to mix one part chlorine bleach with two parts water and strictly chlorine bleach no other additives. Even though the mixture did not cause irritation, it did aggravate additional household members. The issues to consider in conducting this procedure in the future are sound investigations and lengthy explorations of the two chemicals and the properties thereof. If this type of experiment is done later, experts should be sought along with the proper research. Testing outside of the home is an option so that the fumes will not affect any household members. The similarity within the research conducted and the psychologists included investigations of data, resource gathering, and the compilation of evidence for a successful outcome.

Reference Page

Reference Page Entry
McFadden, R (n.d.). Disadvantages of using Chlorine Bleach. Coast Wide Laboratories. Retrieved from
Research Conducted on January 25, 2011

1. This is the awareness that objects and people continue to exist, even if they are out of sight.

a. Recognition
b. Object permanence
c. Intuition
d. Cognitive development

2. During this stage, motor skills are developed; however, there is little or no capacity for symbolic representation.

a. Formal operational
b. Concrete operational mastery
c. Sensorimotor
d. Preoperational

3. This is the term for when children view the world from only their perspective.

a. Egocentric thought
b. Conceited
c. Metacognition
d. Self-esteem

4. The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.

a. Principle of conservation
b. Zone of proximal development
c. Mass
d. Formal operational stage

5. This term involves the planning, monitoring, and revising of cognitive strategies.

a. Authoritative
b. Principle of conservation
c. Metacognition
d. Information processing