???Identify and discuss the differences between the five stage model of team development and the punctuated equilibrium model.
The five stage model:
Stage 1- In the Forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Group members rely on safe, patterned behavior and look to the group leader for guidance and direction.
Stage 2-The next stage, called Storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personal-relations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension. As the group members attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably results in their personal relations.
Stage 3-In the Norming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Group members are engaged in active acknowledgment of all members??™ contributions, community building and maintenance, and solving of group issues. Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively ask questions of one another.
Stage 4-The Performing stage is not reached by all groups. If group members are able to evolve to stage four, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In this stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equal facility. Their roles and authorities dynamically adjust to the changing needs of the group and individuals.
Stage 5-The final stage, Adjourning, involves the termination of task behaviors and disengagement from relationships. A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes.
The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members awareness of time and deadlines.
???Discuss the elements of an effective project vision. Why are they important
There are four key elements to an effective vision. First, the vision must make strategic sense. Second, one must be able to communicate it to others. Third, the project leader must have a personal passion to achieve it. Finally, the vision should inspire others to give optimal effort. The vision must make strategic sense; otherwise others will not see it as appropriate or realistic. One must be able to communicate the vision to others so that they understand it and choose to pursue it. The project manager must have a passion to achieve the vision so that it is seen as being credible and has the full support of the project manager. Finally, visions motivate superior performance and therefore must be a source of inspiration to others.